Successes and failures of the live-attenuated influenza vaccine: can we do better?
The effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) can vary widely, ranging from 0 - 50%. The reasons for these discrepancies remain largely unclear. This study used mathematical models to explore how the efficacy of LAIV is affected by the degree of mismatch with the currently circulating influenza strain and interference with pre-existing immunity.
The incremental cost of delivering PrEP as a bridge to ART for HIV serodiscordant couple in public HIV care clinics in Kenya
In 2016, the Kenyan Ministry of Health (MOH) released guidelines that recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for persons with substantial ongoing HIV risk, including those in HIV serodiscordant partnerships. Estimates of the costs of delivering PrEP within Kenyan public health facilities are needed for planning for PrEP scale up.
Obstructive sleep apnea severity and subsequent risk for cancer incidence
In vitro and animal models suggest that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases cancer risk. However, the impact of OSA severity on cancer risk is poorly understood. The researchers conducted a case-cohort study (a variant of the case-control study design), nested in a cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of OSA.
Validity of natural language processing for ascertainment of EGFR and ALK test results in SEER cases of stage iv non-small-cell lung cancer
SEER registries do not report results of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation tests. To facilitate population-based research in molecularly defined subgroups of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), this study assessed the validity of natural language processing for the ascertainment of EGFR and ALK testing from electronic pathology reports of NSCLC cases included in two SEER registries: the Cancer Surveillance System and the Kentucky Cancer Registry.
Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and progression of subclinical arterial disease: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution
Long-term ozone exposure is associated with cardiovascular mortality, but little is known about the associations between and subclinical arterial disease. Researchers studied the longitudinal association of exposure to and progression of key subclinical arterial markers in adults: intima-media thickness of common carotid artery, carotid plaque burden, and coronary artery calcification.
A pooled analysis of breastfeeding and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status in parous hispanic women
Data on breastfeeding and breast cancer risk are sparse and inconsistent for Hispanic women. Pooling data for nearly 6,000 parous Hispanic women from four population-based studies conducted between 1995 and 2007 in the United States and Mexico, this study examined the association of breastfeeding with risk of breast cancer overall and subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and the joint effects of breastfeeding, parity, and age at first birth.
The role of functional status on the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive decline: the Cardiovascular Health Study
The objective of this study was to examine whether self-reported functional status modified the association between blood pressure (BP) and cognitive decline among older adults. Elevated BP appears to be associated with a decrease in cognitive scores among functioning older adults, and modest improvements in cognitive function among poorly functioning elders.
Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE): consensus working group report
This paper describes a recently recognized disease entity, limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE). LATE neuropathological change (LATE-NC) is defined by a stereotypical TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults, with or without coexisting hippocampal sclerosis pathology. Researchers report consensus-based recommendations including guidelines for diagnosis and staging of LATE-NC.
Colorectal cancer susceptibility variants and risk of conventional adenomas and serrated polyps: results from three cohort studies
Increasing evidence suggests that conventional adenomas (CAs) and serrated polyps (SPs) represent two distinct groups of precursor lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC). The influence of common genetic variants on risk of CAs and SPs remain largely unknown. Among 27,426 participants within three prospective cohort studies, researchers created a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) based on 40 CRC-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in previous genome-wide association studies and examined the association of GRS (per one standard deviation increment) with risk of CAs, SPs and synchronous CAs and SPs, by multivariable logistic regression.
Geographic distribution and determinants of mental health stigma in central Mozambique
Stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness are prevalent in central Mozambique. This study describes patterns of community-level stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness in central Mozambique.