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Dengue seroprevalence in a cohort of schoolchildren and their siblings in Yucatan, Mexico (2015-2016)

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

The implementation of vector control interventions and potential introduction new tools requires baseline data to evaluate their direct and indirect effects. The objective of the study is to present the seroprevalence of dengue infection in a cohort of children 0 to 15 years old followed during 2015 to 2016, the risk factors and the role of enhanced surveillance strategies in three urban sites (Merida, Ticul and Progreso) in Yucatan, Mexico.

Epidemiology of dengue and other arboviruses in a cohort of school children and their families in Yucatan, Mexico: baseline and first year follow-up

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease of humans and is caused by the four serotypes of dengue virus. To estimate the incidence of dengue and other arboviruses, the researchers analyzed the baseline and first year follow-up of a prospective school-based cohort study and their families in three cities in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Through enhanced surveillance activities, acute febrile illnesses in the participants were detected and yearly blood samples were collected to evaluate dengue infection incidence. A Cox model was fitted to identify hazard ratios of arboviral infections in the first year of follow-up of the cohort. The incidence of dengue symptomatic infections observed during the first year of follow-up (2015-2016) was 3.5 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 1.9, 5.9).

Mendelian randomization analysis of C-reactive protein on colorectal cancer risk

International Journal of Epidemiology, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach.

Modifiable predictors of ventricular ectopy in the community

Journal of the American Heart Association, Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) predict heart failure and death. Data regarding modifiable risk factors for PVCs are scarce.

Metabolites associated with the risk of incident venous thromboembolism: a metabolomic analysis

Journal of the American Heart Association, Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Venous thromboembolism ( VTE ) is a complex thrombotic disorder that constitutes a major source of mortality and morbidity. To improve understanding of the cause of VTE, the researchers conducted a metabolomic analysis in a case-control study including 240 incident VTE cases and 6963 controls nested within 3 large prospective population-based cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study II, and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

Long-term weight loss maintenance, sex steroid hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin

Menopause, Monday, November 19, 2018

The researchers tested the effects of weight loss on serum estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in overweight/obese women 18 months after completing a year-long, 4-arm, randomized-controlled dietary weight loss and/or exercise trial.

Is schizophrenia a risk factor for breast cancer?-evidence from genetic data

Schizophrenia Bulletin, Monday, November 19, 2018

Observational epidemiological studies have found an association between schizophrenia and breast cancer, but it is not known if the relationship is a causal one. The researchers used summary statistics from very large genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (n = 40675 cases and 64643 controls) and breast cancer (n = 122977 cases and 105974 controls) to investigate whether there is evidence that the association is partly due to shared genetic risk factors and whether there is evidence of a causal relationship. Using LD-score regression, the researchers found that there is a small but significant genetic correlation (rG) between the 2 disorders (rG = 0.14, SE = 0.03, P = 4.75 × 10-8), indicating shared genetic risk factors.

Feasibility of high-flow nasal cannula implementation for children with acute lower respiratory tract disease in rural Kenya.

Pediatrics and international child health, Monday, November 19, 2018

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a well-established respiratory support device in high-income countries, but to our knowledge, its use in sub-Saharan Africa has not been reported. This feasability study describes the implementation process of HFNC in rural Kenya.

Firearm storage and Adult alcohol misuse among Washington state households with children

JAMA Pediatrics, Monday, November 19, 2018

Firearm injuries and fatalities among children are an important public health problem. Children living with an adult misusing alcohol may be at a heightened risk for self-harm or unintentional injury, highlighting the need to investigate the association between household firearm storage and adult alcohol misuse.

Evaluating academic mentorship programs in low- and middle-income country institutions: proposed framework and metrics

The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, Wednesday, November 14, 2018