Antidepressant continuation in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes
Previous studies observed modestly higher risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) associated with antidepressant use in pregnancy, potentially due to confounding by indication. The researchers assessed the association of antidepressant continuation in pregnancy with GDM, as well as blood glucose levels, after accounting for confounding.
Plasma ceramides and sphingomyelines in relation to heart failure risk
Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. These activities may be influenced by the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide (Cer). However, the associations of different circulating Cer species, and their sphingomyelin (SM) precursors, with heart failure have received limited attention.
A pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic evaluation of contraceptive implants and antiretroviral therapy among women in Kenya and Uganda
The researchers' objective was to evaluate pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of contraceptive implant progestin concentrations in HIV-positive women initiating efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Specific vaginal bacteria are associated with increased risk of Trichomonas vaginalis acquisition in women
While bacterial vaginosis has been associated with an increased risk of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) acquisition, it is unknown if other characteristics of the vaginal microbiota, including the presence of key bacterial species, impact a woman's risk of TV.
Blood amyloid levels and risk of dementia in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS): A longitudinal analysis
Both high or low plasma amyloid levels have been associated with risk of dementia in nondemented subjects. The researchers examined baseline plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in relationship to incident dementia during a period of 8.5 years in 2840 subjects of over 75 years of age.
Perceptions of the possible health and economic impacts of Seattle's sugary beverage tax
Taxes on sugary beverages are an emerging strategy to improve health by reducing consumption and raising revenues to support community wellbeing. However, taxes may have unintended consequences, and perceptions of these consequences may affect attitudes towards this policy.
The effect of reverse causality and selective attrition on the relationship between body mass index and mortality in postmenopausal women
Concerns about reverse causality and selection bias complicate the interpretation of studies of body mass index (BMI) and mortality in older adults. The researchers' objective was to investigate methodological explanations for the apparent attenuation of obesity-related risks in older adults.
Electronic health record tools to catalyse PrEP conversations
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV acquisition, and its scale-up reduces HIV infections at the population level. However, PrEP's impact currently falls short of its potential. In the USA, the Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1.1 million individuals are potentially eligible for PrEP but less than 10% of them are prescribed it. Globally, the gap is even greater. And, sadly, at the national and international level, PrEP use breaks along lines of established racial, economic, gender, and other disparities.
HIV-1 self-testing to improve the efficiency of pre-exposure prophylaxis delivery: a randomized trial in Kenya
The introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) prevention in Africa presents new challenges for health systems that are already overburdened because PrEP delivery requires frequent clinic visits (generally every 3 months) for HIV-1 testing and PrEP refills. HIV-1 self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to improve the efficiency of PrEP delivery by decreasing the number of clinic visits. Here, the researchers describe the rationale and design of a randomized, noninferiority trial designed to test the effectiveness and safety of using HIVST to support PrEP delivery in Kenya.
Design of vaccine efficacy trials during public health emergencies
Public health emergencies, such as an Ebola disease outbreak, provide a complex and challenging environment for the evaluation of candidate vaccines. Here, the researchers outline the need for flexible and responsive vaccine trial designs to be used in public health emergencies, and they summarize recommendations for their use in this setting.