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Assessment of the relationship between genetic determinants of thyroid function and atrial fibrillation: a mendelian randomization study

JAMA Cardiology, Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF.

Pregnancy course, infant outcomes, rehospitalization, and mortality among women with intellectual disability

Disability and Health Journal, Sunday, January 20, 2019

Pregnant women with intellectual disability (ID) may have greater levels of comorbidity and decreased care access, social support, or ability to monitor their status and communicate needs, but few studies have examined their pregnancy course and outcome, and little is known about their longer-term maternal and infant health. We compared pre-pregnancy characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, and rehospitalization <2 years after delivery among women with and without ID.

A large-scale exome array analysis of venous thromboembolism

Genetic Epidemiology, Saturday, January 19, 2019

Although recent Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified novel associations for common variants, there has been no comprehensive exome-wide search for low-frequency variants that affect the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We conducted a meta-analysis of 11 studies comprising 8,332 cases and 16,087 controls of European ancestry and 382 cases and 1,476 controls of African American ancestry genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip.

A fully adjusted two-stage procedure for rank-normalization in genetic association studies

Genetic Epidemiology, Thursday, January 17, 2019

When testing genotype-phenotype associations using linear regression, departure of the trait distribution from normality can impact both Type I error rate control and statistical power, with worse consequences for rarer variants. Because genotypes are expected to have small effects (if any) investigators now routinely use a two-stage method, in which they first regress the trait on covariates, obtain residuals, rank-normalize them, and then use the rank-normalized residuals in association analysis with the genotypes. Here, we show that this widely used approach can lead to tests with undesirable statistical properties, due to both combination of a mis-specified mean-variance relationship and remaining covariate associations between the rank-normalized residuals and genotypes.

The evolving facets of bacterial vaginosis: implications for HIV transmission

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Monday, January 14, 2019

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common yet poorly understood vaginal condition that has become a major focus of HIV transmission and immunology research. Varied terminologies are used by clinicians and researchers to describe microbial communities that reside in the female reproductive tract, which is driven in part by microbial genetic and metabolic complexity, evolving diagnostic and molecular techniques, and multidisciplinary perspectives of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and immunologists who all appreciate the scientific importance of understanding mechanisms that underlie "BV".

A genome-wide association study identifies new loci for factor VII and implicates factor VII in ischemic stroke etiology

Blood, Monday, January 14, 2019

Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (seven FVII activity and two FVII antigen) among 27,495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. 

Validation of a urine tenofovir immunoassay for adherence monitoring to PrEP and ART and establishing the cut-off for a point-of-care test

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Friday, January 11, 2019

Current pharmacologic adherence monitoring for antiretrovirals involves expensive, labor-intensive liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methods. Antibody-based assays can monitor and support adherence in real-time. We developed a tenofovir (TFV)-based immunoassay and further validated it in a directly-observed-therapy (DOT) study.

Cholinesterase inhibitors may not benefit mild cognitive impairment and mild alzheimer disease dementia

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, Thursday, January 10, 2019

We investigated whether cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) benefit cognitive outcomes in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease (MCI-AD) and in mild AD dementia (ADdem).

Risk interval analysis of emergency room visits following colonoscopy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

PLoS One, Wednesday, January 9, 2019

Prior studies suggest that colonoscopy may exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms. Thus, our study aimed to determine risk of emergency room (ER) visits associated with colonoscopy among IBD patients and evaluate potential modifiers of this risk.

High global burden and costs of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Monday, January 7, 2019

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of reproductive age and is associated with important adverse health outcomes. Estimates of the burden of BV and associated costs are needed to inform research priorities. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of global BV prevalence among reproductive-aged women in the general population. We searched PubMed and Embase, and used random effects models to estimate BV prevalence by global regions. We estimated the direct medical costs of treating symptomatic BV. Assuming a causal relationship, we also estimated the potential costs of BV-associated preterm births and HIV cases in the United States.