Firearm-related behaviors following firearm injury: changes in ownership, carrying and storage
Individuals who sustain nonfatal gunshot wound (GSW) injuries are at substantially increased risk of subsequent firearm injury. There is a dearth of literature examining what, if any, firearm-related behavior changes occur among adults as a result of GSW injuries. Using survey data on firearm-related behaviors from an ongoing randomized controlled trial, the researchers sought to describe changes in reported firearn-related behaviors among GSW patients following their injury.
Dietary determinants of inorganic arsenic exposure in the Strong Heart Family study
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in the US occurs mainly through drinking water and diet. Although American Indian populations have elevated urinary arsenic concentrations compared to the general US population, dietary sources of arsenic exposure in American Indian populations are not well characterized.
A scoping review of patterns, motives, and risk and protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage
Firearm carriage is a key risk factor for interpersonal firearm violence, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. However, the epidemiology of adolescent firearm carriage has not been well characterized. This scoping review examines four databases to summarize research on patterns, motives, and underlying risk/protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage.
Mortality following myocardial infarction among HIV-infected persons: the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems
Persons with HIV have higher risks for myocardial infarction (MI) than the general population. This is driven in part by higher type 2 MI (T2MI) rates among persons with HIV. In the general population, T2MI has higher mortality than type 1 MI (T1MI). PWH have a greater burden of comorbidities and may therefore have an even greater excess risk for complication and death in the setting on T2MI. However, mortality patterns after T1MI and T2MI in HIV are unknown.
Residence change during the first trimester of pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes
There are few published studies evaluating the impact of perinatal residence change on infant outcomes and whether these associations differ by socioeconomic status. The researchers conducted a population-based cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data to assess whether women who moved during the first trimester of pregnancy had a higher risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age than women who did not move during the first trimester.
PrEP for HIV: grade A for evidence but pending for impact
The US Preventive Services Task Force has issued a grade A recommendation that clinicians offer pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people at high risk of acquiring HIV. Currently, many fewer individuals receive PrEP than those who would benefit from it; whether PrEP can have a real impact on reducing the global burden of HIV is yet to be determined.
The impact of APOE genotype on survival: results of 38,537 participants from six population-based cohorts
Apolipoprotein E is a glycoprotein best known as a mediator and regulator of lipid transport and uptake. The APOE-ε4 allele has long been associated with increased risks of Alzheimer's disease and mortality, but the effect of the less prevalent APOE-ε2 allele on diseases in the elderly and survival remains elusive.
New alcohol-related genes suggest shared genetic mechanisms with neuropsychiatric disorders
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here, the researchers conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia.
Change in left atrial function predicts incident atrial fibrillation: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis
Longitudinal change in left atrial (LA) structure and function could be helpful in predicting risk for incident atrial fibrillation (AF). The researchers used cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to explore the relationship between change in LA structure and function and incident AF in a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline.
Protocol for a longitudinal study to evaluate the use of tenofovir-based PrEP for safer conception and pregnancy among women in South Africa
Women who choose to conceive a baby with a partner living with HIV or a partner whose HIV serostatus is unknown in HIV-endemic settings need prevention strategies to mitigate HIV acquisition during conception and pregnancy.