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Genome-wide meta-analysis of 158,000 individuals of European ancestry identifies three loci associated with chronic back pain

PLoS Genetics, Thursday, September 27, 2018

Back pain is the #1 cause of years lived with disability worldwide, yet surprisingly little is known regarding the biology underlying this symptom. The researchers conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of chronic back pain (CBP). 

Influence and involvement of support people in adolescent and young adult HIV testing

AIDS Care, Thursday, September 27, 2018

HIV incidence and mortality are high among adolescents and young adults (AYA) in sub-Saharan Africa, but testing rates are low. Understanding how support people (SP), such as peers, partners, or parents, influence AYA may improve HIV testing uptake. 

Repeated False-Positive HIV Test Results in a Patient Taking HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Regular HIV testing is required to ensure the safety of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The researchers describe and discuss a series of false-positive HIV test results from an individual receiving PrEP. The expansion of PrEP will likely result in greater numbers of false-positive test results that may pose challenges for interpretation.

Genome-wide association study of 23,500 individuals identifies 7 loci associated with brain ventricular volume.

Nature Communications, Wednesday, September 26, 2018

The volume of the lateral ventricles (LV) increases with age and their abnormal enlargement is a key feature of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although lateral ventricular volume is heritable, a comprehensive investigation of its genetic determinants is lacking. In this meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 23,533 healthy middle-aged to elderly individuals from 26 population-based cohorts, the researchers identify 7 genetic loci associated with LV volume. These loci map to chromosomes 3q28, 7p22.3, 10p12.31, 11q23.1, 12q23.3, 16q24.2, and 22q13.1 and implicate pathways related to tau pathology, S1P signaling, and cytoskeleton organization. The researchers also report a significant genetic overlap between the thalamus and LV volumes (ρgenetic = -0.59, p-value = 3.14 × 10-6), suggesting that these brain structures may share a common biology. These genetic associations of LV volume provide insights into brain morphology.

"If I had known, I would have applied": poor communication, job dissatisfaction, and attrition of rural health workers in Sierra Leone

Human Resources for Health, Monday, September 24, 2018

Sierra Leone's health outcomes rank among the worst in the world. A major challenge is the shortage of primary healthcare workers (HCWs) in rural areas due to especially high rates of attrition. This study was undertaken to determine the drivers of job dissatisfaction and poor retention among Sierra Leone's rural HCWs.

The Association Between Park Facilities and Duration of Physical Activity During Active Park Visits.

Journal of Urban Health, Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Public parks provide places for urban residents to obtain physical activity (PA), which is associated with numerous health benefits. Adding facilities to existing parks could be a cost-effective approach to increase the duration of PA that occurs during park visits. Using objectively measured PA and comprehensively measured park visit data among an urban community-dwelling sample of adults, the researchers tested the association between the variety of park facilities that directly support PA and the duration of PA during park visits where any PA occurred. Cross-classified multilevel models were used to account for the clustering of park visits (n = 1553) within individuals (n = 372) and parks (n = 233). Each additional different PA facility at a park was independently associated with a 6.8% longer duration of PA bouts that included light-intensity activity, and an 8.7% longer duration of moderate to vigorous PA time.

Hospital resource utilization and presence of advance directives at the end of life for adults with congenital heart disease

Congenital Heart Disease, Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Overall health care resource utilization by adults with congenital heart disease has increased dramatically in the past two decades, yet little is known about utilization patterns at the end of life. The objective of this study is to better understand the patterns and influences on end-of-life care intensity for adults with congenital heart disease.

Impact of partner-related social harms on women's adherence to the dapivirine vaginal ring during a phase III trial.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Long-acting female-initiated methods like the dapivirine ring may give women greater agency in HIV-1 prevention. However, social harms, defined as non-medical adverse consequences of study participation or dapivirine ring use, may reduce product adherence and consequently HIV-1 protection.

Impact of partner-related social harms on women's adherence to the dapivirine vaginal ring during a phase III trial

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Long-acting female-initiated methods like the dapivirine ring may give women greater agency in HIV-1 prevention. However, social harms, defined as non-medical adverse consequences of study participation or dapivirine ring use, may reduce product adherence and consequently HIV-1 protection.

Sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy and subsequent risk of stillbirth and infant mortality in Kenya: a prospective study

Sexually Transmitted Infections, Tuesday, September 18, 2018

We evaluated the relationship of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital infections during pregnancy and subsequent risk for infant mortality and stillbirth. This was a nested longitudinal analysis using data from a study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Kenya. In the parent study, HIV-uninfected women were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months postpartum.