Early Cumulative Fluid Balance and Outcomes in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients with Acute Respiratory Failure

Colin Sallee | 2021

Advisor: Susan R. Heckbert

Research Area(s): Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Epidemiology

Full Text

Objectives: To evaluate the associations between early cumulative fluid balance (CFB) and outcomes among critically ill pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients with acute respiratory failure, and determine if these associations vary by treatment with renal replacement therapy (RRT). Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective cohort of patients (1mo – 21yrs) post-allogeneic HCT with acute respiratory failure treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) from 2009 to 2014. Fluid intake and output were measured daily for the first week of IMV (day 0 = day of intubation). The exposure, day 3 CFB (CFB from day 0 through day 3 of IMV), was calculated using the equation [Fluid in – Fluid out] (liters)/[PICU admission weight](kg)*100. We measured the association between day 3 CFB and PICU mortality with logistic regression, and the rate of extubation at 28 and 60 days with competing risk regression (PICU mortality = competing risk). Results: 198 patients were included in the study. Mean % CFB for the cohort was positive on day 0 of IMV, and increased further on days 1-7 of IMV. For each 1% increase in day 3 CFB, the odds of PICU mortality were 3% higher (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and the rate of extubation was 3% lower at 28 days (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (aSHR) 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) and 3% lower at 60 days (aSHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98). When day 3 CFB was dichotomized, 161 (81%) had positive and 37 (19%) had negative day 3 CFB. Positive day 3 CFB was associated with higher PICU mortality (aOR 3.42, 95% CI 1.48-7.87) and a lower rate of extubation at 28 days (aSHR 0.30, 95% CI 0.18-0.48) and 60 days (aSHR 0.30, 95% 0.19-0.48). On stratified analysis, the association between positive day 3 CFB and PICU mortality was significantly stronger in those not treated with RRT (no RRT: aOR 9.11, 95% CI 2.29-36.22; RRT: aOR 1.40, 95% CI 0.42-4.74). Conclusions: Among critically ill pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients with acute respiratory failure, positive and increasing early CFB were independently associated with adverse outcomes.