Department of Epidemiology

MS


May 20, 2022

Modeling to Inform the Delivery of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Sub-Saharan Africa

Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a safe and effective method for HIV prevention and offers potential to substantially reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical models are commonly used to project the cost-effectiveness of investments in PrEP in comparison to alternative resource allocation strategies. Predictive modeling…


A longitudinal study of the association between internalizing problems during early adolescence and alcohol and cannabis use disorder at age 18 in a community sample

Introduction: Substance use disorders, such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD), in young adults are an important public health concern. AUD and CUD may have deleterious impacts on the ongoing maturation of the brain and lead to impaired thinking, memory, emotional, and learning functions. Research on how internalizing problems among adolescents…


Clinical and Biomarker Modifiers of Vitamin D Treatment Response: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Background: Different 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) thresholds for treatment with vitamin D supplementation have been suggested, and are derived almost exclusively from observational studies. Whether other characteristics including race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) should also influence the threshold for treatment is unknown. Objective: Identify clinical and biomarker characteristics that modify…


Development and validation of a biomarker-based model to predict persistent hypoxemic respiratory failure among mechanically ventilated adults

Background. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is a common and morbid condition, but treatment is largely supportive and most pharmacologic trials have been negative. The early clinical trajectory is heterogeneous, with most patients resolving within days while others require prolonged IMV, which impairs both clinical resource allocation and the detection…


Depressive Symptoms Over the Course of Adolescence among Latinx Youth from Small Towns in the United States: Comparing Children of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants

Purpose: To compare depressive symptoms over the course of adolescence among Latinx Children of Immigrants (COI), Latinx Children of Non-Immigrants (CONI), and non-Latinx White CONI from small towns in the United States and to examine whether differences vary by developmental age and by sex.Methods: We used 6 years of longitudinal data from 1,520 adolescents that…


Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibody Levels in Veterinary Medical Professionals: A Cross Sectional Study from Samples Collected at U.S. Veterinary Continuing Education Conferences

Rabies is a viral pathogen primarily spread by animal bites; the resultant infection is a nearly 100% fatal. The American Veterinary Medical Association recommends all veterinary team members should receive pre-exposure rabies vaccination. The World Health Organization recommends that Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibody (RVNA) levels should stay at or above 0.5 IU/mL. The goal of…


The Association of Severe Pain Experienced in the PICU and Health-Related Quality of Life Post-Discharge

BACKGROUND: A decline in health-related quality of life (HRQL) is common after pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. There are few known modifiable risk factors during PICU admission for a clinically significant decline in HRQL. Chronic pain is known to be associated with low HRQL. We hypothesized that the duration of severe pain during PICU…


Concordance and discordance between patient-defined remission and remission based on validated patient-reported outcome measures among patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease

Background: Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) experience periods of disease flares and remission. However, there may be differences in a patient’s own definition of remission and remission based on validated patient reported outcome (PRO) measures. This secondary data analysis seeks to inform our understanding of the concordance…


The effect of polygamy on loss of human papillomavirus detection in Senegalese women

Objectives: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) can result in premalignant cervical lesions. Women in polygamous marriage are more likely to be re-exposed to HPV. Repeated exposure to HPV antigen may lead to shorter duration of infections by boosting the immune response. This study assessed the impact of polygamy on the clearance of HPV infection…


Migraine and the risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer

Survivors of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) are at risk for neurocognitive impairments, which can impact quality of life. Given limited long-term studies, we aimed to characterize the late neurocognitive outcomes in a cohort of adult HCT survivors. Eligible survivors (age ≥21y at time of HCT and alive ³2y followed HCT) completed a 60-question survey of…



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