Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in an Adult Outpatient Cohort
Despite a well-established association with CMV infection and higher mortality in the general population, there are few descriptions of CMV reactivation. We used data from University of Washington Virology Research Clinic's (VRC) vast specimen repository to investigate CMV reactivation in the blood (viremia) as well as in oral and genital sites in a population with both HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative persons. We found the following: 1) CMV reactivation is common, particularly in the oral and genital mucosa, 2) HIV infection is strongly associated with CMV reactivation, 3) resource-rich settings have an increased frequency of oral reactivation while a higher CD4+ T-cell count is associated with a lower frequency of oral reactivation, and 4) women have an increased frequency of genital reactivation. We also found an association between anatomic sites of reactivation, although not by all methods used. As a result, this study advances our understanding of CMV infection.