Thirty-year risk of ischemic stroke in individuals with sickle cell trait and modification by chronic kidney disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
Sickle cell trait (SCT) has been associated with hypercoagulability, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ischemic stroke. Whether concomitant CKD modifies long-term ischemic stroke risk in individuals with SCT is uncertain.
Genomic and transcriptomic association studies identify 16 novel susceptibility loci for venous thromboembolism
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, the researchers conducted a genome-wide association study of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver.
Analysis of the TCR repertoire in HIV-exposed but uninfected infants
Maternal human immunodeficieny virus infection has been shown to leave profound and lasting impacts on the HIV-exposed uninfected infant, including increased mortality and morbidity, immunological changes, and developmental delays compared to their HIV-unexposed counterparts. Exposure to HIV or antiretroviral therapy may influence immune development, which could increased morbidity and mortality. However, a direct link between the increased mortality and morbidity and the infant's immune system has not been identified.
Diagnostic accuracy of oral mucosal transudate tests compared to blood-based rapid tests for HIV among children ages 18 months to 18 years in Kenya and Zimbabwe
Gaps persist in HIV testing for children who were not tested in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs. Oral mucosal transudate rapid HIV tests have been shown to be highly sensitive in adults but their performance has not been established in children.
The cross-sectional and longitudinal association between air pollution and salivary cortisol: evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Cortisol, a stress hormone released by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is critical to the body's adaptive response to physiological and psychological stress. Cortisol has also been implicated in the health effects of air pollution through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This study evaluates the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between several air pollutants and salivary cortisol.
Understanding complex roles of family for Latina health: evaluating family obligation stress
The researchers developed a measure of family obligation stress and compared its relationship to health and unmet health care needs relative to social support among a samply of US-based Latinas.
Brief report: high programmatic isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) use in pregnancy among HIV-infected women
The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV to prevent tuberculosis, including pregnant women. Recent trial results suggest increased adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with IPT during pregnancy. Data are limited regarding programmatic IPT use in pregnant women living with HIV.
A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies multiple longevity genes
Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, the researchers perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition.
Genome-wide meta-analysis of SNP and antihypertensive medication interactions on left ventricular traits in African Americans
Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy affects up to 43% of African Americans. Antihypertensive treatment reduces LV mass. However, interindividual variation in LV traits in response to antihypertensive treatments exists. The researchers hypothesized that genetic variants may modify the association of antihypertensive treatment class with LV traits measured by echocardiography.
Assocation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and change in quantitatively assessed emphysema and lung function
While air pollutants at historical levels have been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, it in not known whether exposure to contemporary air pollutant concentrations is associated with progression of emphysema.