School of Public Health

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Senescence-associated tissue microenvironment promotes colon cancer formation through the secretory factor GDF15

Aging Cell, Tuesday, August 6, 2019

The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) caries between people, and the cellular mechanisms mediating the differences in risk are largely unknown. In this study, the researchers assessed the role of senescence and the SASP in CRC formation.

Replacing dairy fat with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids: a food-level modeling study of dietary nutrient density and diet quality using the 2013-16 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Frontiers in Nutrition, Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Recent dietary guidelines have become more food-based, as opposed to purely nutrient-based. By contrast, assessing the impact of dietary changes on chronic disease risk continues to rely on single-nutrient substitutions. To assess the real-world implications of a nutrient-for-nutrient swap, the researchers examined dietary nutrient density and healthy diet scores following removal of food sources of dairy fat 

Networks of face-to-face social contacts in Niakhar, Senegal

PLoS One, Tuesday, August 6, 2019

The researchers present the first analysis of face-to-face contact network data from Niakhar, Senegal. Participants in a cluster-randomized influenza vaccine trial were interviewed about their contact patterns when they reported sympotoms during their weekly household surveillance visit. They employ a negative bionomial model to estimate effects of covariates on contact degree.

Prevalence of hepatitis B virus exposure in the Veterans' Health Administration and association with military-related risk factors

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Monday, August 5, 2019

Military veterans were reported to have higher odds of hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure after adjustment for demographic factors, family income, and birthplace. It is unclear whether military-related exposures are associated with risk of HBV exposure in veterans.

A short-term religious "fast" from animal products has a minimal impact on cardiometabolic health biomarkers irrespective of concurrent shifts in distinct plant-based food groups

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Monday, August 5, 2019

Plant-based diets may help improve measures of body fat, blood cholesterol, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. However, limited evidence suggests that the health effects of reducing animal products may depend on the quality of plant-based food consumed as caloric replacements. This study examines how temporarily restricting consumption of meat, dairy, and egg (MDE) products for religious purposes influences cardiometabolic health biomarkers and whether any effects of MDE restriction on biomarkers are modified by concurrent shifts in calories, fish, and distinct plant-based foods.

Differences in magnitude and rates of change in BMI distributions by socioeconomic and geographic factors in Mexico, Colombia, and Peru, 2005-2010

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Monday, August 5, 2019

Previous studies about obesity and its associated factors in low- and middle-income nations have been based mostly on women of reproductive age. Furthermore, disproportionally changing BMI distributions have been a challenge for its appropriate modeling. To this avail, the researchers assessed the magnitude and rate of change in BMI distribution by socioeconomic and geographic factors in both sexes in Latin American countries, modeling the shape of BMI distributions.

Psychosocial factors of diet and physical activity among rural, Hispanic children: findings from a multilevel health intervention study

Journal of Racial & Ethnic Health Disparities, Monday, August 5, 2019

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, family role modeling, and perceptions of the environment, on diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in Hispanic children living in rural Washington State.

Early career investigators and precision public health

The Lancet, Saturday, August 3, 2019

The priority schema for strategies that will be most consequential for improving the public's health is in hot debate. Vocal sceptics of precision public health caution against precision-based approaches, suggesting that focusing on these advances is not worth the effort and could overshadow the true mission of public health.

Air pollution, particulate matter composition and methylation-based biologic age

Environment International, Saturday, August 3, 2019

Epigenetic age, as defined by DNA methylation, may be influenced by air pollution exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM), PM components and accelerated epigenetic age.

A genome-wide association study identifies genetic loci associated with specific lobar brain volumes

Communications Biology, Friday, August 2, 2019

Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. The researchers performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in more than sixteen-thousand individuals.