Sugars and sweeteners: science, innovations, and consumer guidance for Asia
Rising obesity in Southeast Asia, one consequence of economic growth, has been linked to a rising consumption of energy from added sugars. This symposium, organized by ILSI Southeast Asia, explored regional issues related to dietary sugars and health and identified ways in which these issues could be addressed by regional regulatory agencies, food producers, and the consumer.
Lessons from suppressive therapy and periodic presumptive treatment for bacterial vaginosis
Suppressive therapy and periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) are distinct but related strategies that have been used to reduce the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Here, the researchers review clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of suppressive therapy and PPT to reduce BV, and discuss their roles for women who frequently experience symptomatic or asymptomatic BV.
Soluble CD14 and CD14 variants, other inflammatory markers, and glucose dysregulation in older adults: the cardiovascular health study
Experimental studies have implicated soluble (s)CD14, an effortor of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, in insulin resistance, but its role in human metabolic endotoxemia has not been studied. The researchers evaluated sCD14 in relation to dysglycemia in older adults and how this compared to other markers of inflammation.
Global implementation of PrEP for HIV prevention: setting expectations for impact
Questions remain whether HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis can be translated into a successful public health intervention, leading to a decrease in population-level HIV incidence. The researchers use examples from HIV treatment and contraceptives to discuss expectations for PrEP uptake, adherence, and persistence and their combined impact on the epidemic.
Assessing the clinical impact of CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variation on phenytoin prescribing practice and patient response in an integrated health system
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CYP2C9 variation on phenytoin patient response and clinician prescribing practice where genotype was unknown during treatment.
Two truncating variants in FANCC and breast cancer risk
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoalletic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies.
Male partner linkage to clinic-based services for sexually transmitted infections and HIV
Home-based HIV testing and education has increased HIV test uptake and access to health services among men. The researchers studied how a home-based antenatal intervention influenced male partner utilization of clinic-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection services, linkage to HIV care and medical circumcision.
Activity space metrics not associated with sociodemographic variables, diet or health outcomes in the Seattle Obesity Study II
Activity spaces, captured using GPS tracking devices, are measures of dynamic exposure to the built environment.
Plasma metabolomics profile suggest beneficial effects of a low-glycemic load dietary pattern on inflammation and energy metabolism
Low-glycemic load dietary patterns, characterized by consumption of whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables, are associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Using samples from a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial, the researchers comparatively evaluated the effects of metabolic profiles of a low-glycemic whole-grain dietary pattern.
Thirty-year risk of ischemic stroke in individuals with sickle cell trait and modification by chronic kidney disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
Sickle cell trait (SCT) has been associated with hypercoagulability, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ischemic stroke. Whether concomitant CKD modifies long-term ischemic stroke risk in individuals with SCT is uncertain.