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Maternal gestational weight gain and DNA methylation in young women: application of life course mediation methods

Epigenomics, Monday, November 6, 2017

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and prepregnancy BMI on programming offspring DNA methylation.

Treated hypothyroidism is associated with cerebrovascular disease but not Alzheimer's disease pathology in older adults

Neurobiology of Aging, Saturday, November 4, 2017

Thyroid hormone disease is common among older adults and is associated with cognitive impairment. However, pathologic correlates are not well understood. We studied pathologic and clinical factors associated with hypothyroidism, the most common manifestation of thyroid disease, in research subjects seen annually for clinical evaluations at U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers. 

Rationale and design of the HOME trial: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of home-based human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling for increasing cervical cancer screening uptake and effectiveness in a U.S. healthcare system

Contemporary Clinical Trials, Saturday, November 4, 2017

Women who delay or do not attend Papanicolaou (Pap) screening are at increased risk for cervical cancer. Trials in countries with organized screening programs have demonstrated that mailing high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling kits to under-screened women increases participation, but U.S. data are lacking.  The trial was designed to evaluate whether a programmatic strategy incorporating hrHPV self-sampling is effective in promoting adherence to the complete screening process (including follow-up of abnormal screening results and treatment). The objective of this report is to describe the rationale and design of this pragmatic trial.

Firearm Injury After Gun Shows: Evidence to Gauge the Potential Impact of Regulatory Interventions

Annals of Internal Medicine, Tuesday, October 24, 2017

The recent mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, was a painful reminder that injuries and deaths resulting from access to guns continue to bedevil many parts of U.S. society, including communities; the health care industry; and the families of those injured, killed, or threatened by firearms. Although the problem created by more than 300 million guns in the United States will ultimately need a political solution, science and scientific publications have important roles in assessing and promoting awareness about interventions that may reduce the 36 000 fatal and 85 000 nonfatal firearm injuries each year.

Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

Nature, Monday, October 23, 2017

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here, we identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.

Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer

Nature Genetics, Monday, October 23, 2017

GWAS have identified 107 SNPs that are independently associated with breast cancer risk. We aimed to discover additional susceptibility variants for ER-negative breast cancer by performing a GWAS in women of European origin.

Loaded Handgun Carrying Among US Adults, 2015

American Journal of Public Health, Thursday, October 19, 2017

To determine the frequency of loaded handgun carrying among US adult handgun owners, characterize those who carry, and examine concealed carrying by state concealed carry laws. The study estimates that 9 million US adult handgun owners carry loaded handguns monthly, 3 million do so every day, and most report protection as the main carrying reason.

Use of firearms in terrorist attacks differences between the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand

JAMA Internal Medicine, Friday, October 6, 2017

Although firearms are used in only a small proportion of terrorist attacks, these highly publicized events shed light on access to weapons and mass shootings. The sociopolitical and cultural context surrounding firearms, including the proportion of individuals owning guns, varies between countries. The United States has a higher rate of firearms deaths than other high-income countries. Robert Tessler and his team compared the proportion of terrorist attacks committed with firearms in the United States with the proportion in other high-income countries. They also compared the lethality of attacks with firearms to those by other means.

Brief Report: Dapivirine vaginal ring use does not diminish the effectiveness of hormonal contraception

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Sunday, October 1, 2017

This study evaluated the potential for a clinically relevant drug–drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use.

Up For A Challenge (U4C): Stimulating innovation in breast cancer genetic epidemiology

PLOS Genetics, Thursday, September 28, 2017

Breast cancer remains a major public health burden, with an estimated 252,710 new cases and 40,610 deaths among women in the United States in 2017. At present, close to 100 common genetic variants have been associated with breast cancer. However, these variants explain only a small proportion of the estimated genetic contribution to the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, in 2015, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched a challenge to inspire novel cross-disciplinary approaches to more fully decipher the genomic basis of breast cancer, called "Up For A Challenge (U4C)—Stimulating Innovation in Breast Cancer Genetic Epidemiology.” The goal of U4C was to promote the development and/or implementation of innovative approaches to identify novel risk pathways—including new genes or combinations of genes, genetic variants, or sets of genomic features—involved in breast cancer susceptibility in order to generate new biological hypotheses.