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Activity space metrics not associated with sociodemographic variables, diet or health outcomes in the Seattle Obesity Study II

Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Thursday, August 22, 2019

Activity spaces, captured using GPS tracking devices, are measures of dynamic exposure to the built environment.

Plasma metabolomics profile suggest beneficial effects of a low-glycemic load dietary pattern on inflammation and energy metabolism

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Low-glycemic load dietary patterns, characterized by consumption of whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables, are associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Using samples from a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial, the researchers comparatively evaluated the effects of metabolic profiles of a low-glycemic whole-grain dietary pattern.

Thirty-year risk of ischemic stroke in individuals with sickle cell trait and modification by chronic kidney disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

American Journal of Hematology, Monday, August 19, 2019

Sickle cell trait (SCT) has been associated with hypercoagulability, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ischemic stroke. Whether concomitant CKD modifies long-term ischemic stroke risk in individuals with SCT is uncertain.

Postpartum metabolic syndrome after gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, a prospective cohort study

Pregnancy Hypertension, Monday, August 19, 2019

In this study, the researchers evaluated the 6-month postpartum risk of metabolic syndrome, a marker of future cardiovascular disease risk, comparing women whose most recent pregnancies were complicated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia versus those who had normotensive pregnancies. 

Genomic and transcriptomic association studies identify 16 novel susceptibility loci for venous thromboembolism

Blood, Friday, August 16, 2019

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, the researchers conducted a genome-wide association study of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver.

Analysis of the TCR repertoire in HIV-exposed but uninfected infants

Scientific Reports, Friday, August 16, 2019

Maternal human immunodeficieny virus infection has been shown to leave profound and lasting impacts on the HIV-exposed uninfected infant, including increased mortality and morbidity, immunological changes, and developmental delays compared to their HIV-unexposed counterparts. Exposure to HIV or antiretroviral therapy may influence immune development, which could increased morbidity and mortality. However, a direct link between the increased mortality and morbidity and the infant's immune system has not been identified.

Diagnostic accuracy of oral mucosal transudate tests compared to blood-based rapid tests for HIV among children ages 18 months to 18 years in Kenya and Zimbabwe

Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes, Friday, August 16, 2019

Gaps persist in HIV testing for children who were not tested in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs. Oral mucosal transudate rapid HIV tests have been shown to be highly sensitive in adults but their performance has not been established in children.

The cross-sectional and longitudinal association between air pollution and salivary cortisol: evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Environment International, Thursday, August 15, 2019

Cortisol, a stress hormone released by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is critical to the body's adaptive response to physiological and psychological stress. Cortisol has also been implicated in the health effects of air pollution through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This study evaluates the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between several air pollutants and salivary cortisol.

Understanding complex roles of family for Latina health: evaluating family obligation stress

Family & Community Health, Wednesday, August 14, 2019

The researchers developed a measure of family obligation stress and compared its relationship to health and unmet health care needs relative to social support among a samply of US-based Latinas.

Brief report: high programmatic isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) use in pregnancy among HIV-infected women

Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes, Wednesday, August 14, 2019

The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV to prevent tuberculosis, including pregnant women. Recent trial results suggest increased adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with IPT during pregnancy. Data are limited regarding programmatic IPT use in pregnant women living with HIV.