School of Public Health

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk in Lynch syndrome

British Journal of Cancer, Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer.

Optimizing bacterial DNA extraction in urine

PLoS One, Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Urine is an acceptable, non-invasive sample for investigating the human urogenital microbiota and for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. However, low quantities of bacterial DNA and PCR inhibitors in urine may prevent efficient PCR amplification for molecular detection of bacteria.

Hepatitis B birth dose: first shot at timely early childhood vaccination

American Journal of Preventive Medicine , Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Current U.S. recommendations state that newborns weighing ≥2,000 grams should receive a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, yet approximately one quarter do not receive this first dose as scheduled. The relationship between timely receipt of the first hepatitis B vaccine and other early childhood vaccines remains unclear.

Genome wide association study of apparent treatment resistant hypertension in the CHARGE consortium: the CHARGE Pharmacogenetics Working Group

American Journal of Hypertension, Monday, September 23, 2019

Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. The researchers conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry and 5 cohorts of African ancestry.

Change in physical activity and cardiac structure over 10 years: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Physical activity is inversely associated with risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas increased left ventricular mass and mass to volume ratio are unfavorable CVD risk factors. The researchers assessed whether changes in leisure time physical activity were associated with longitudinal changes in cardiac structure in a community-based population.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with incident hypertension in ankylosing spondylitis

Arthritis Care & Research, Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase blood pressure and potentially cardiovascular burden, which may limit their use in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The researchers' objective was to determine the association of NSAID use with incident hypertension in a longitudinal AS cohort.

Effects of colorectal cancer risk factors on the association between aspirin and colorectal cancer

Anticancer Research, Monday, September 16, 2019

In this study, the researchers investigated the effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer risk among subgroups of women with and without risk factors for colorectal cancer.

Correlates of concurrent partnerships and patterns of condom use among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru

PLoS One, Monday, September 16, 2019

In Peru, there is an ongoing high-incidence HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). Sexual concurrency, or having sex with a partner in between two acts of sex with another partner, may be a key factor in onward HIV transmission. In this study, the researchers quantify concurrency, evaluate factors associated with concurrency, and assess condom use with concurrent partners among MSM and TW in Peru.

Performance of family planning clinics in conducting recommended HIV counseling and testing in Mombasa County, Kenya: a cross-sectional study

BMC Health Services Research, Saturday, September 14, 2019

A high proportion of African women utilize family planning services. Accordingly, incorporating HIV testing into FP services may strategically target the first WHO 90-90-90 goal of 90% of people living with HIV knowing their status. The objective of this analysis was to determine the proportion of new FP clients counseled and tested for HIV, as well as correlates of HIV testing, in a random sample of 58 FP clinics in Mombasa County, Kenya.

Terminal effector CD8 t cells defined by IKZF2*IL-7R transcriptional signature express FcγRIIIA, expand in HIV infection, and mediate potent HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Journal of Immunology, Friday, September 13, 2019

HIV-1 infection expands large populations of late-stage differentiated CD8 T cells that may persist long after viral escape from TCR recognition. In this study, the researchers investigated whether such CD8 T cell populations can perform unconventional innate-like antiviral effector functions.