Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia and cognitive decline among older adults with or without mild cognitive impairment
The objective of this study was to assess the association between alcohol consumption and dementia and the roles of mild cognitive impairment and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype in modifying this association.
Integrating preexposure prophylaxis delivery in routine family planning clinics: a feasibility programmatic evaluation in Kenya
Young women account for a disproportionate fraction of new HIV infections in Africa and are a priority population for HIV prevention, including implementation of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The overarching goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating PrEP delivery within routine family planning clinics to serve as a platform to efficiently reach at-risk adolescent girls and young women for PrEP in HIV high-burden settings.
Sugars and sweeteners: science, innovations, and consumer guidance for Asia
Rising obesity in Southeast Asia, one consequence of economic growth, has been linked to a rising consumption of energy from added sugars. This symposium, organized by ILSI Southeast Asia, explored regional issues related to dietary sugars and health and identified ways in which these issues could be addressed by regional regulatory agencies, food producers, and the consumer.
Sex differences in the genetic predictors of Alzheimer's pathology
Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses.
Lessons from suppressive therapy and periodic presumptive treatment for bacterial vaginosis
Suppressive therapy and periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) are distinct but related strategies that have been used to reduce the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Here, the researchers review clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of suppressive therapy and PPT to reduce BV, and discuss their roles for women who frequently experience symptomatic or asymptomatic BV.
Soluble CD14 and CD14 variants, other inflammatory markers, and glucose dysregulation in older adults: the cardiovascular health study
Experimental studies have implicated soluble (s)CD14, an effortor of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, in insulin resistance, but its role in human metabolic endotoxemia has not been studied. The researchers evaluated sCD14 in relation to dysglycemia in older adults and how this compared to other markers of inflammation.
Assessing the clinical impact of CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variation on phenytoin prescribing practice and patient response in an integrated health system
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CYP2C9 variation on phenytoin patient response and clinician prescribing practice where genotype was unknown during treatment.
Two truncating variants in FANCC and breast cancer risk
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoalletic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies.
Global implementation of PrEP for HIV prevention: setting expectations for impact
Questions remain whether HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis can be translated into a successful public health intervention, leading to a decrease in population-level HIV incidence. The researchers use examples from HIV treatment and contraceptives to discuss expectations for PrEP uptake, adherence, and persistence and their combined impact on the epidemic.
Male partner linkage to clinic-based services for sexually transmitted infections and HIV
Home-based HIV testing and education has increased HIV test uptake and access to health services among men. The researchers studied how a home-based antenatal intervention influenced male partner utilization of clinic-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection services, linkage to HIV care and medical circumcision.