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Correlates of concurrent partnerships and patterns of condom use among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru

PLoS One, Monday, September 16, 2019

In Peru, there is an ongoing high-incidence HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). Sexual concurrency, or having sex with a partner in between two acts of sex with another partner, may be a key factor in onward HIV transmission. In this study, the researchers quantify concurrency, evaluate factors associated with concurrency, and assess condom use with concurrent partners among MSM and TW in Peru.

Performance of family planning clinics in conducting recommended HIV counseling and testing in Mombasa County, Kenya: a cross-sectional study

BMC Health Services Research, Saturday, September 14, 2019

A high proportion of African women utilize family planning services. Accordingly, incorporating HIV testing into FP services may strategically target the first WHO 90-90-90 goal of 90% of people living with HIV knowing their status. The objective of this analysis was to determine the proportion of new FP clients counseled and tested for HIV, as well as correlates of HIV testing, in a random sample of 58 FP clinics in Mombasa County, Kenya.

Terminal effector CD8 t cells defined by IKZF2*IL-7R transcriptional signature express FcγRIIIA, expand in HIV infection, and mediate potent HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Journal of Immunology, Friday, September 13, 2019

HIV-1 infection expands large populations of late-stage differentiated CD8 T cells that may persist long after viral escape from TCR recognition. In this study, the researchers investigated whether such CD8 T cell populations can perform unconventional innate-like antiviral effector functions.

Healthy behaviors and incidence of overweight and obesity in military veterans

Annals of Epidemiology, Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Research suggests that U.S. veterans have a higher obesity prevalence than nonveterans and that weight gain is high after military discharge. Few studies have assessed the joint effects of health behaviors on obesity risk.

Genome-wide association meta-analyses and fine-mapping elucidate pathways influencing albuminuria

Nature Communications, Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Increased levels of the uninary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, the researchers conduct trans-ethnic and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses.

Perinatal outcomes following maternal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use during pregnancy: results from a large PrEP implementation program in Kenya

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, September 9, 2019

The World Health Organization, while recommending pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative pregnant women and postpartum women in HIV high-burdan settings, advocates for continued safety evaluation of PrEP in this population.

Hospital-based quality improvement interventions for patients with acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review

Circulation, Cardiovascular Quality & Outcomes, Friday, September 6, 2019

Quality improvement initiatives have been developed to improve acute coronary syndrome care largely in high-income country settings. The researchers sought to synthesize the effect size and quality of evidence from randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized studies for hospital-based acute coronary syndrome quality improvement interventions on clinical outcomes and process of care measures for their potential implementation in low- and middle-income country settings.

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity targeting CD4-inducible epitopes predicts mortality in HIV-infected infants

EBioMedicine, Friday, September 6, 2019

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been associated with improved infant outcome in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Epitopes of these ADCC-mediating antibodies remain unidentified. CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes on gp120 are common ADCC targets in natural infection and vaccination. The researchers tested whether CD4i epitope-specific ADCC mediated by maternal antibodies or passively-acquired antibodies in infants is associated with reduced mother-to-child transmission and improved infant survival.

Association of birth weight with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits: a Mendelian randomization study

JAMA Network Open, Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Observational studies have shown association of birth weight with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. The objective of this study was to test the association of birth weight with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits using a Mendelian randomization analysis.

Molecular testing for Mycoplasma genitalium in the United States; results from the AMES prospective multi-center clinical study

Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Wednesday, September 4, 2019

A prospective multicenter clinical study involving subjects from 21 sites across the United States was conducted to validate the performance of a new in vitro diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium.