Evaluating employment quality as a determinant of health in a changing labor market
The shifting nature of employment in recent decades has not been adequately examined from a public health perspective. To that end, traditional models of work and health research need to be expanded to include the relational and contractual aspects of employment that also affect health.
Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 29 cancer groups, 1990 to 2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals.
Virological failure in children living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: correlates and predictive value of clinical measurements and CD4 cell count
Clinical correlates and CD4 cell count are used to predict HIV virological failure among children living with HIV in resource-limited settings, but there are limited data on their prediction of treatment failure compared to viral measurement.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk in Lynch syndrome
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer.
Hepatitis B birth dose: first shot at timely early childhood vaccination
Current U.S. recommendations state that newborns weighing ≥2,000 grams should receive a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, yet approximately one quarter do not receive this first dose as scheduled. The relationship between timely receipt of the first hepatitis B vaccine and other early childhood vaccines remains unclear.
Optimizing bacterial DNA extraction in urine
Urine is an acceptable, non-invasive sample for investigating the human urogenital microbiota and for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. However, low quantities of bacterial DNA and PCR inhibitors in urine may prevent efficient PCR amplification for molecular detection of bacteria.
Genome wide association study of apparent treatment resistant hypertension in the CHARGE consortium: the CHARGE Pharmacogenetics Working Group
Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. The researchers conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry and 5 cohorts of African ancestry.
Change in physical activity and cardiac structure over 10 years: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis
Physical activity is inversely associated with risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas increased left ventricular mass and mass to volume ratio are unfavorable CVD risk factors. The researchers assessed whether changes in leisure time physical activity were associated with longitudinal changes in cardiac structure in a community-based population.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with incident hypertension in ankylosing spondylitis
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase blood pressure and potentially cardiovascular burden, which may limit their use in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The researchers' objective was to determine the association of NSAID use with incident hypertension in a longitudinal AS cohort.
Correlates of concurrent partnerships and patterns of condom use among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru
In Peru, there is an ongoing high-incidence HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). Sexual concurrency, or having sex with a partner in between two acts of sex with another partner, may be a key factor in onward HIV transmission. In this study, the researchers quantify concurrency, evaluate factors associated with concurrency, and assess condom use with concurrent partners among MSM and TW in Peru.