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Longitudinal analysis of long-term air pollution levels and blood pressure: A cautionary tale from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

Environmental Health Perspectives, Monday, October 1, 2018

Air pollution exposures are hypothesized to impact blood pressure, yet few longitudinal studies exist, their findings are inconsistent, and different adjustments have been made for potentially distinct confounding by calendar time and age. We aimed to investigate the associations of long- and short-term [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] concentrations with systolic and diastolic blood pressures and incident hypertension while also accounting for potential confounding by age and time.

Association of endogenous sex hormone levels with coronary artery calcium progression among post-menopausal women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Monday, October 1, 2018

Sex differences in the incidence and manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) suggest the involvement of sex hormones in disease pathogenesis. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and its progression, measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography, are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and predict CVD, even among low-risk women. We hypothesized that sex hormone levels were associated with CAC progression among women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Strength of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection varies with case definition

International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Monday, October 1, 2018

The veracity of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been a topic of debate. The researchers postulated that criteria used to define HUS affect this association.

Neighbourhood racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiometabolic risk: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Saturday, September 29, 2018

Racial residential segregation has been linked to adverse health outcomes, but associations may operate through multiple pathways. Prior studies have not examined associations of neighbourhood-level racial segregation with an index of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and whether associations differ by race/ethnicity.

Rare loss of function variants in candidate genes and risk of colorectal cancer

Human Genetics, Friday, September 28, 2018

Although ~ 25% of colorectal cancer or polyp (CRC/P) cases show familial aggregation, current germline genetic testing identifies a causal genotype in the 16 major genes associated with high penetrance CRC/P in only 20% of these cases. As there are likely other genes underlying heritable CRC/P, the researchers evaluated the association of variation at novel loci with CRC/P. The researchers evaluated 158 a priori selected candidate genes by comparing the number of rare potentially disruptive variants (PDVs) found in 84 CRC/P cases without an identified CRC/P risk-associated variant and 2440 controls. The researchers repeated this analysis using an additional 73 CRC/P cases. The researchers also compared the frequency of PDVs in select genes among CRC/P cases with two publicly available data sets. They found a significant enrichment of PDVs in cases vs. controls: 20% of cases vs. 11.5% of controls with ≥ 1 PDV (OR = 1.9, p = 0.01) in the original set of cases.

Cumulative human immunodeficiency viremia, antiretroviral therapy, and incident myocardial infarction

Epidemiology, Friday, September 28, 2018

The multi-site Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort includes clinical data and centrally adjudicated MI with distinction between atheroembolic MI (type 1) and MI related to supply-demand mismatch (type 2). The researchers examined CNICS participants who were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrollment. Cumulative VL (copy-days of virus) from 6 months after enrollment was estimated with a time-weighted sum using the trapezoidal rule. The researchers modeled associations of cumulative and baseline VL with MI by type using marginal structural Cox models. The researchers contrasted the 75% percentile of the VL distribution with the 25% percentile.

Genome-wide meta-analysis of 158,000 individuals of European ancestry identifies three loci associated with chronic back pain

PLoS Genetics, Thursday, September 27, 2018

Back pain is the #1 cause of years lived with disability worldwide, yet surprisingly little is known regarding the biology underlying this symptom. The researchers conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of chronic back pain (CBP). 

Influence and involvement of support people in adolescent and young adult HIV testing

AIDS Care, Thursday, September 27, 2018

HIV incidence and mortality are high among adolescents and young adults (AYA) in sub-Saharan Africa, but testing rates are low. Understanding how support people (SP), such as peers, partners, or parents, influence AYA may improve HIV testing uptake. 

Repeated False-Positive HIV Test Results in a Patient Taking HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Regular HIV testing is required to ensure the safety of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The researchers describe and discuss a series of false-positive HIV test results from an individual receiving PrEP. The expansion of PrEP will likely result in greater numbers of false-positive test results that may pose challenges for interpretation.

Genome-wide association study of 23,500 individuals identifies 7 loci associated with brain ventricular volume.

Nature Communications, Wednesday, September 26, 2018

The volume of the lateral ventricles (LV) increases with age and their abnormal enlargement is a key feature of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although lateral ventricular volume is heritable, a comprehensive investigation of its genetic determinants is lacking. In this meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 23,533 healthy middle-aged to elderly individuals from 26 population-based cohorts, the researchers identify 7 genetic loci associated with LV volume. These loci map to chromosomes 3q28, 7p22.3, 10p12.31, 11q23.1, 12q23.3, 16q24.2, and 22q13.1 and implicate pathways related to tau pathology, S1P signaling, and cytoskeleton organization. The researchers also report a significant genetic overlap between the thalamus and LV volumes (ρgenetic = -0.59, p-value = 3.14 × 10-6), suggesting that these brain structures may share a common biology. These genetic associations of LV volume provide insights into brain morphology.