Is schizophrenia a risk factor for breast cancer?-evidence from genetic data
Observational epidemiological studies have found an association between schizophrenia and breast cancer, but it is not known if the relationship is a causal one. The researchers used summary statistics from very large genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (n = 40675 cases and 64643 controls) and breast cancer (n = 122977 cases and 105974 controls) to investigate whether there is evidence that the association is partly due to shared genetic risk factors and whether there is evidence of a causal relationship. Using LD-score regression, the researchers found that there is a small but significant genetic correlation (rG) between the 2 disorders (rG = 0.14, SE = 0.03, P = 4.75 × 10-8), indicating shared genetic risk factors.
Feasibility of high-flow nasal cannula implementation for children with acute lower respiratory tract disease in rural Kenya.
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a well-established respiratory support device in high-income countries, but to our knowledge, its use in sub-Saharan Africa has not been reported. This feasability study describes the implementation process of HFNC in rural Kenya.
Firearm storage and Adult alcohol misuse among Washington state households with children
Firearm injuries and fatalities among children are an important public health problem. Children living with an adult misusing alcohol may be at a heightened risk for self-harm or unintentional injury, highlighting the need to investigate the association between household firearm storage and adult alcohol misuse.
Evaluating academic mentorship programs in low- and middle-income country institutions: proposed framework and metrics
Implementing innovations in public health agency preparedness and response programs
Failures in maintaining accurate and robust communication and information flows are often responsible for impeding organizations’ abilities to make informed decisions and work together during emergencies. Numerous tools and trainings have been developed to improve public health preparedness and response (PHPR) communications, but effectively implementation of evidence-based PHPR system improvements is unclear, and systematic uptake and adoption of evidence-based innovations into public health agencies has been limited.
Expanding methodologies to identify high-priority emergency preparedness tools for implementation in public health agencies
From analysis of recent emergencies, a consistent finding is that communication is among the most important factors in emergency response effectiveness. Communications failures, contradictions, and delays among response partners, key authorities, and the community can contribute to avoidable morbidity and mortality
Child protection reports and removals of infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure.
A frequent response for prenatal substance exposure (PSE) is intervention by child protective services (CPS). Previous research has examined differences in reports to CPS regarding PSE by substance exposure and by maternal race. However, little is known regarding the frequency of immediate removals by CPS relating to PSE and maternal race.
trajectories of nonagenarian health: gender, age, and period effects
The US population aged 90 years and older is growing rapidly and there are limited data on their health. The Cardiovascular Health Study is a prospective study of black and white adults ≥65 years recruited in two waves (1989-90 and 1992-93) from Medicare eligibility lists in Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The researchers created a synthetic cohort of the 1,889 participants who had reached age 90 at baseline or during follow-up through July 16th, 2015. Participants entered the cohort at 90 years and the researchers evaluated their changes in health after age 90 (median [IQR] follow-up: 3 [1.3-5] years). Measures of health included cardiovascular events, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, prescription medications, self-rated health, and measures of functional status.
Short message service (SMS) surveys assessing Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and sexual behavior are highly acceptable among HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples in East Africa: a mixed methods study
Short message service (SMS) surveys are a promising data collection method and were used to measure sexual behavior and adherence to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV-uninfected partners of serodiscordant couples enrolled in a sub-study of the Partners Demonstration Project (an open-label study of integrated antiretroviral therapy and PrEP for HIV prevention in Kenya and Uganda). Questionnaires were completed by 142 participants after study exit. Median age was 29 years; 69% were male. Ninety-five percent (95%) felt SMS surveys were "easy" or "very easy", 74% reported no challenges, and 72% preferred SMS surveys over in-person study visits. Qualitative interviews involving 32 participants confirmed the ease of responding to SMS surveys.
Adjudicated heart failure in HIV-infected and uninfected men and women
HIV is associated with elevated risk of heart failure (HF). Despite poor agreement between automated, administrative code-based HF definitions and physician-adjudicated HF, no studies have evaluated incident adjudicated HF for people living with HIV (PLWH).