School of Public Health

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Physical activity to prevent and treat hypertension: a systematic review

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Saturday, June 1, 2019

This systematic umbrella review examines and updates the evidence on the relationship between physical activity and blood pressure presented in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report.

Brief report: cofactors of mortality among hospitalized HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy in Kenya

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Saturday, June 1, 2019

Identifying factors associated with mortality among acutely ill HIV-infected children presenting with advanced HIV disease may help clinicians optimize care for those at highest risk of death. Using data from a randomized controlled trial, this study determined baseline sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory cofactors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Kenya.

A catalog of genetic loci associated with kidney function from analyses of a million individuals

Nature Genetics, Saturday, June 1, 2019

Chronic kidney disease is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate and independent replication, this study identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen.

A proposed nutrient density score that includes food groups and nutrients to better align with dietary guidance

Nutrition Reviews, Saturday, June 1, 2019

Current research on diets and health focuses on composite food patterns and their likely impact on health outcomes. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) have likewise adopted a more food group-based approach. By contrast, most nutrient profiling (NP) models continue to assess nutrient density of individual foods, based on a small number of individual nutrients. Nutrients to encourage have included protein, fiber, and a wide range of vitamins and minerals. Nutrients to limit are typically saturated fats, total or added sugars, and sodium. Because current NP models may not fully capture the healthfulness of foods, there is a case for advancing a hybrid NP approach that takes both nutrients and desirable food groups and food ingredients into account. Creating a nutrient- and food-based NP model may provide a more integrated way of assessing a food's nutrient density.

Screening flexible sigmoidoscopy versus colonoscopy for reduction of colorectal cancer mortality

International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Friday, May 31, 2019

Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy are both recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, but their relative effectiveness is unclear. We sought to evaluate the ability of each of these two modalities to reduce CRC mortality.

Correlates of HIV detection among breastfeeding postpartum Kenyan women eligible under Option B

PLoS One, Friday, May 31, 2019

The Option B+ strategy streamlines delivery of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) to pregnant women, but concerns remain about ART treatment adherence and long term outcomes. This study conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive, postpartum breastfeeding women receiving ART via Option B+ in Nairobi, Kenya.

Misclassification of sex assigned at birth in the behavioral risk factor surveillance system and transgender reproductive health: a quantitiative bias analysis

Epidemiology, Friday, May 31, 2019

National surveys based on probability sampling methods, such as the Behavior Risk Factor and Surveillance System (BRFSS), are crucial tools for unbiased estimates of health disparities. In 2014, the BRFSS began offering a module to capture transgender and gender nonconforming identity. Although the BRFSS provides much needed data on the this population, these respondents are vulnerable to misclassification of sex assigned at birth.

Differences in STI risk comparing PrEP users and propensity score-matched historical controls in a clinic setting

AIDS, Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The objective of this investigation was to determine whether men who have sex with men (MSM) using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are at higher risk of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to MSM not using PrEP.

Destress 9-1-1-an online mindfulness-based intervention in reducing stress among emergency medical dispatchers: a randomised controlled trial

Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) experience significant stress in the workplace. Yet, interventions aimed at reducing work-related stress are difficult to implement due to the logistic challenges associated with the relatively unique EMD work environment. This investigation tested the efficacy of a 7-week online mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) tailored to the EMD workforce.

Characterizing ultra-processed foods by energy density, nutrient density, and cost

Frontiers in Nutrition, Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The NOVA food classification scheme divides foods into ultra-processed, processed, unprocessed, and culinary ingredients. Ultra-processed foods contribute >60% of energy to diets in the US. The researchers sought to characterize ultra-processed foods by energy density, nutrient density, and monetary cost.