PrEP implementation for mothers in antenatal care (PrIMA): study protocol of a cluster randomised trial
Women in regions with high HIV prevalence are at high risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum, and acute maternal HIV contributes a substantial proportion of infant HIV infections. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could prevent HIV during pregnancy/postpartum; however, identifying women who would most benefit from PrEP in this period is challenging. Women may not perceive risk, may not know partner HIV status and partners may have external partners during this period. PrEP offer in pregnancy could be universal or risk guided.
Long-term risk of neuropsychiatric disease after exposure to infection in utero
The developmental origins of mental illness are incompletely understood. Although the development of autism and schizophrenia are linked to infections during fetal life, it is unknown whether more common psychiatric conditions such as depression might begin in utero. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of psychopathologic conditions imparted from fetal exposure to any maternal infection while hospitalized during pregnancy.
Predictors of atrial ectopy and their relationship to atrial fibrillation risk
Premature atrial contractions (PACs) are known to trigger and predict atrial fibrillation (AF). This study sought to identify the determinants of PACs and the degree to which PACs mediate the effects of established risk factors for AF.
Sampling and sampling frames in big data epidemiology
The 'big data' revolution affords the opportunity to reuse administrative datasets for public health research. While such datasets offer dramatically increased statistical power compared with conventional primary data collection, typically at much lower cost, their use also raises substantial inferential challenges. In particular, it can be difficult to make population inferences because the sampling frames for many administrative datasets are undefined. We reviewed options for accounting for sampling in big data epidemiology.
Enumeration of operations performed for elderly patients in Ghana: an opportunity to improve global surgery benchmarking
The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery proposed 5000 operations/100,000 people annually as a benchmark for developing countries but did not define benchmarks for different age groups. We evaluated the operation rate for elderly patients (≥65 years) in Ghana and estimated the unmet surgical need for the elderly by comparison to a high-income country benchmark.
Race-based differences in lipoprotein(a)-associated risk of carotid atherosclerosis
Lp(a) [lipoprotein(a)] is a well-described risk factor for atherosclerosis, but Lp(a)-associated risk may vary by race/ethnicity. We aimed to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies Lp(a)-related risk of carotid atherosclerotic plaque outcomes among black, white, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals.
Artificially sweetened beverages and stroke, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality in the women's health initiative
This study examined the association between self-reported consumption of artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and stroke and its subtypes, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal US women.
In-country training by the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons: an initiative that has aided surgeon retention and distribution in Ghana
Prior to 2003, production of new surgeons in Ghana was limited. In 2003, the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons (GCPS) initiated the first wholly in-country training and credentialing of surgeons. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of in-country training of surgeons in Ghana.
Genetic meta-analysis of diagnosed Alzheimer's disease identifies new risk loci and implicates Aβ, tau, immunity and lipid processing
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals).
VKORC1 and novel CYP2C9 variation predict warfarin response in Alaska Native and American Indian people
Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people have unique pharmacogene variation that may affect warfarin disposition and therapeutic response. We performed targeted genotyping for cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9, vitamin K epoxide oxidase reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) variants in AN/AI people receiving warfarin.