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Air pollution, clustering of particulate matter components, and breast cancer in the sister study: a U.S.-wide cohort

Environmental Health Perspectives, Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Particulate matter is a complex mixture. Geographic variations in particulate matter may explain the lack of consistent associations with breast cancer.

Heterogeneous exposure associations in observational cohort studies: the example of blood pressure in older adults

American Journal of Epidemiology, Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Heterogeneous exposure associations (HEAs) can be defined as differences in the association of an exposure with an outcome among subgroups that differ by a set of characteristics. This manuscript intends to foster discussion of HEAs in the epidemiological literature, and present a variant of the random forest algorithm that can be used to identify HEAs.

Association between enrollment factors and incident cognitive impairment in Blacks and Whites: Data from the Alzheimer's Disease Center

Alzheimer's and Dementia, Sunday, October 6, 2019

The researchers examined the influence of enrollment factors demonstrated to differ by race on incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia using Alzheimer's Disease Center data.

Academic partnerships in global surgery: an overview American Surgical Association Working Group on academic global surgery

Annals of Surgery, Friday, October 4, 2019

Most surgeons from high-income countries who work in global surgery will do so through partnerships between their institutions and institutions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this article, the American Surgical Association Working Group for Global Surgery lays out recommendations for criteria that contribute to equitable, sustainable, and effective partnerships.

Predictors of mortality within the first year of initiating antiretroviral therapy in urban and rural Kenya: a prospective cohort study

PLoS One, Friday, October 4, 2019

Despite increased treatment availability, HIV-infected individuals continue to start antiretroviral therapy late in disease progression, increasing early mortality risk.

Impact of rare and common genetic variants on diabetes diagnosis by hemoglobin A1c in multi-ancestry cohorts: The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program

American Journal of Human Genetics, Thursday, October 3, 2019

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used to diagnose diabetes and assess glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. However, nonglycemic determinants, including genetic variation, may influence how accurately HbA1c reflects underlying glycemia.

Evaluation of injury severity and resource utilization in pediatric firearm and sharp force injuries

JAMA Network Open, Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Pediatric firearm injuries are a serious and growing public health problem, constituting the second leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the United States. Firearm injuries have a high case fatality, but knowledge is limited to date regarding their injury severity and health care utilization burden compared with those of other penetrating injuries, especially among children with critical injury.

Text messaging for maternal and infant retention in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services: A pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial in Kenya

PLoS Medicine, Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Timely diagnosis of infant HIV infection is essential for antiretroviral therapy initiation. In a randomized controlled trial, the researchers found the Texting Improves Testing (TextIT) intervention to be efficacious for improving infant HIV testing rates and maternal retention in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs.

Target genes, variants, tissues and transcriptional pathways influencing human serum urate levels

Nature Genetics, Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. The researchers performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in more than four hundred thousand individuals.

Maternal education in early life and risk of metabolic syndrome in young adult American females and males: disentangling life course processes through causal models

Epidemiology, Monday, September 30, 2019

Maternal education in a child's early life may directly affect the child's adult cardiometabolic health, but this is difficult to disentangle from biological, social, and behavioral life course processes that are associated with maternal education. These processes may also differ between males and females.