A field evaluation of point-of-care creatinine testing within a large PrEP implementation program in Western Kenya
Programmatic scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is progressing with nearly 400,000 PrEP initiations worldwide as of October 2018. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends creatinine (Cr) testing before starting PrEP, quarterly during PrEP use for the first 12 months, and then annually thereafter. This recommendation is based on labeling requirements that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based PrEP be used only in persons with normal renal function and rare experience with renal complications among HIV-infected persons using TDF as part of HIV treatment. Initial PrEP trials all tested renal function using serum Cr
Fecal microbial diversity and structure are associated with diet quality in the Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study
The aim of this study was to examine the association of diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial, with measures of fecal microbial community structure assessed in the Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), an ethnically diverse study population with varied food intakes.
Disparities in trajectories of changes in the unhealthy food environment in New York City: A latent class growth analysis, 1990-2010
Disparities in availability of food retailers in the residential environment may help explain racial/ethnic and socio-economic differences in obesity risk. Research is needed that describes whether food environment dynamics may contribute to equalizing conditions across neighborhoods or to amplifying existing inequalities over time. This study improves the understanding of how the BMI-unhealthy food environment has evolved over time in New York City.
Innovation in genomic data sharing at the NIH
In October 2018, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) released draft provisions for data sharing from federally funded research. For research involving human participants, the recommendations highlight a key tension: “Sharing scientific data derived from human specimens warrants special attention and should be done as broadly as possible, consistent with the consent of the individual participants.” Making publicly funded data widely available not only increases its value but also enhances reproducibility of findings.
Assessment of rates of child maltreatment in states with medicaid expansion vs states without medicaid expansion
Physical abuse and neglect affect a significant number of children in the United States. The 2014 Medicaid expansion, in which several states opted to expand their Medicaid programs, is associated with parental financial stability and access to mental health care. The researches sought to determine whether Medicaid expansion is associated with changes in physical abuse and neglect rates.
Occupational injury burden among gold miners in Ghana
The mining environment is particularly dangerous in low- and middle-income countries. The researchers sought to better understand the burden, characteristics and risk factors associated with gold mining, through a household survey of 1,029 miners in four districts, in Ghana.
Association of estimated long-term exposure to air pollution and traffic proximity with a marker for coronary atherosclerosis in a nationwide study in China
Epidemiologic evidence of the mechanisms of the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and coronary heart disease (CHD) is limited and relies heavily on studies performed in Europe and the United States, where air pollution levels are relatively low. In particular, the association between air pollution and CHD in patients with underlying risks for CHD is understudied. The researchers sought to determine whether air pollution and proximity to traffic are associated with the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, a key atherosclerotic marker.
Does bacterial vaginosis modify the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV seroconversion
A recent study of HIV serodiscordant couples found that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and oral contraceptive pills were associated with increased HIV risk in the presence, but not in the absence, of bacterial vaginosis. This investigation assessed whether bacterial vaginosis is an effect modifier of the association between hormonal contraception and HIV seroconversion in female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.
An mHealth SMS intervention on postpartum contraceptive use among women and couples in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial
This study aimed to assess the effect of 2-way short message service (SMS) with a nurse on postpartum contraceptive use among individual women and couples.
Physical activity in cancer prevention and survival: a systematic review
This article reviews and updates the evidence on the associations between physical activity and risk for cancer, and for mortality in persons with cancer, as presented in the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report.