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The Pediatric Guideline Adherence and Outcomes (PEGASUS) programme in severe traumatic brain injury: a single-centre hybrid implementation and effectiveness study

The Lancet: child and adolescent health, Thursday, November 22, 2018

There are no tested in-hospital care programmes for paediatric traumatic brain injury. The researchers aimed to assess implementation and effectiveness of the Pediatric Guideline Adherence and Outcomes (PEGASUS) programme in children with severe traumatic brain injury.

Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies

European Heart Journal, Thursday, November 22, 2018

There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after 'recalibration', a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied.

Mendelian randomization analysis of C-reactive protein on colorectal cancer risk

International Journal of Epidemiology, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach.

Vigorous physical activity is associated with metastatic-lethal progression in prostate cancer and differential tumor DNA methylation in the CRACR2A gene

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

There is preliminary evidence linking physical activity to better prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes, though the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. In a Seattle-based cohort of patients diagnosed with clinically localized PCa and prospective follow-up for outcomes (n=1354), the researchers studied the association between self-reported vigorous physical activity and PCa progression to a metastatic-lethal phenotype.

Episodic memory performance in a multi-ethnic longitudinal study of 13,037 elderly

PLoS One, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Age-related changes in memory are not uniform, even in the absence of dementia. Characterization of non-disease associated cognitive changes is crucial to gain a more complete understanding of brain aging. Episodic memory was investigated in 13,037 ethnically diverse elderly (ages 72 to 85 years) with two to 15 years of follow-up, and with known dementia status, age, sex, education, and APOE genotypes. Adjusted trajectories of episodic memory performance over time were estimated using Latent Class Mixed Models. Analysis was conducted using two samples at baseline evaluation: i) non-cognitively impaired individuals, and ii) all individuals regardless of dementia status. The researchers calculated the age-specific annual incidence rates of dementia in the non-demented elderly (n = 10,220).

Dengue seroprevalence in a cohort of schoolchildren and their siblings in Yucatan, Mexico (2015-2016)

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

The implementation of vector control interventions and potential introduction new tools requires baseline data to evaluate their direct and indirect effects. The objective of the study is to present the seroprevalence of dengue infection in a cohort of children 0 to 15 years old followed during 2015 to 2016, the risk factors and the role of enhanced surveillance strategies in three urban sites (Merida, Ticul and Progreso) in Yucatan, Mexico.

Epidemiology of dengue and other arboviruses in a cohort of school children and their families in Yucatan, Mexico: baseline and first year follow-up

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease of humans and is caused by the four serotypes of dengue virus. To estimate the incidence of dengue and other arboviruses, the researchers analyzed the baseline and first year follow-up of a prospective school-based cohort study and their families in three cities in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Through enhanced surveillance activities, acute febrile illnesses in the participants were detected and yearly blood samples were collected to evaluate dengue infection incidence. A Cox model was fitted to identify hazard ratios of arboviral infections in the first year of follow-up of the cohort. The incidence of dengue symptomatic infections observed during the first year of follow-up (2015-2016) was 3.5 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 1.9, 5.9).

Metabolites associated with the risk of incident venous thromboembolism: a metabolomic analysis

Journal of the American Heart Association, Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Venous thromboembolism ( VTE ) is a complex thrombotic disorder that constitutes a major source of mortality and morbidity. To improve understanding of the cause of VTE, the researchers conducted a metabolomic analysis in a case-control study including 240 incident VTE cases and 6963 controls nested within 3 large prospective population-based cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study II, and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

Modifiable predictors of ventricular ectopy in the community

Journal of the American Heart Association, Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) predict heart failure and death. Data regarding modifiable risk factors for PVCs are scarce.

Is schizophrenia a risk factor for breast cancer?-evidence from genetic data

Schizophrenia Bulletin, Monday, November 19, 2018

Observational epidemiological studies have found an association between schizophrenia and breast cancer, but it is not known if the relationship is a causal one. The researchers used summary statistics from very large genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia (n = 40675 cases and 64643 controls) and breast cancer (n = 122977 cases and 105974 controls) to investigate whether there is evidence that the association is partly due to shared genetic risk factors and whether there is evidence of a causal relationship. Using LD-score regression, the researchers found that there is a small but significant genetic correlation (rG) between the 2 disorders (rG = 0.14, SE = 0.03, P = 4.75 × 10-8), indicating shared genetic risk factors.