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In-country training by the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons: An initiative that has aided surgeon retention and distribution in Ghana

World Journal of Surgery, Thursday, November 1, 2018

Prior to 2003, production of new surgeons in Ghana was limited. In 2003, the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons (GCPS) initiated the first wholly in-country training and credentialing of surgeons. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of in-country training of surgeons in Ghana.

Genome analyses of >200,000 individuals identify 58 loci for chronic inflammation and highlight pathways that link inflammation and complex disorders

American Journal of Human Genetics, Thursday, November 1, 2018

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals.

Leptin gene variants and colorectal cancer risk: Sex-specific associations

PLoS One, Wednesday, October 31, 2018

High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity and CRC risk.

Exploring the relationship between surgical capacity and output in Ghana: current capacity assessments may not tell the whole story

World Journal of Surgery, Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Capacity assessments serve as surrogates for surgical output in low- and middle-income countries where detailed registers do not exist. The relationship between surgical capacity and output was evaluated in Ghana to determine whether a more critical interpretation of capacity assessment data is needed on which to base health systems strengthening initiatives.

Prevalence and correlates of beta and gamma human papillomavirus detection in oral samples from mid-adult women

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Little is known about the epidemiology of β and γ human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in oral cavities of healthy women. Our results suggest a sexual transmission route for β-HPVs, and support the hypothesis that fingers may serve as a source of transmission or autoinoculation of β-HPVs to the oral cavity.

Public perceptions of firearm- and non-firearm-related violent death in the United States: A national study

Annals of Internal Medicine, Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Version 3 of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set

Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, Monday, October 29, 2018

In 2015, the US Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADC) implemented Version 3 of the Uniform Data Set (UDS). This paper describes the history of Version 3 development and the UDS data that are freely available to researchers.

Developing a representative community health survey sampling frame using open-source remote satellite imagery in Mozambique

International Journal of Health Geographics, Monday, October 29, 2018

Lack of accurate data on the distribution of sub-national populations in low- and middle-income countries impairs planning, monitoring, and evaluation of interventions. Novel, low-cost methods to develop unbiased survey sampling frames at sub-national, sub-provincial, and even sub-district levels are urgently needed. This article details our experience using remote satellite imagery to develop a provincial-level representative community survey sampling frame to evaluate the effects of a 7-year health system intervention in Sofala Province, Mozambique.

Genome-wide analyses identify a role for SLC17A4 and AADAT in thyroid hormone regulation

Nature Communications, Friday, October 26, 2018

Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here the researchers report a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for thyroid function and dysfunction, testing 8 million genetic variants in up to 72,167 individuals. One-hundred-and-nine independent genetic variants are associated with these traits. A genetic risk score, calculated to assess their combined effects on clinical end points, shows significant associations with increased risk of both overt (Graves' disease) and subclinical thyroid disease, as well as clinical complications.

Monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with tuberculosis disease and declines with anti-TB treatment in HIV-infected children

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Friday, October 26, 2018

The blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) is associated with active tuberculosis (TB) in adults, but has not been evaluated as a TB diagnostic biomarker in HIV-infected children in whom respiratory sampling is difficult. In a cohort of HIV-infected hospitalized Kenyan children initiating antiretroviral therapy, absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts were determined at enrollment and 4, 12, and 24 weeks thereafter.