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DNA repair and cancer in colon and rectum: novel players in genetic susceptibility

International Journal of Cancer, Monday, June 17, 2019

Inter-individual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, the researchers evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls.

The Kathmandu Declaration on global CVD/hypertension research and implementation science: a framework to advance implementation research for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries

Global Heart, Friday, June 14, 2019

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), principally ischemic heart disease and stroke, remain the leading cause of global mortality, causing an estimated 17.8 million deaths, which is nearly one-third of all global deaths in 2017. The World Health Organization has estimated that 85% of premature deaths from NCD and nearly two-thirds of all NCD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) where they adversely affect sustainable development, economic prosperity, and overall health. Importantly, this huge NCD burden contrasts sharply with the marked scarcity of implementation research capacity in LMIC to test and implement sustainable strategies for the prevention, treatment, and control of NCD.

Methylome-wide association study provides evidence of particulate matter air pollution-associated DNA methylation

Environment International, Friday, June 14, 2019

DNA methylation (DNAm) may contribute to processes that underlie associations between air pollution and poor health. Therefore, the researchers' objective was to evaluate associations between DNAm and ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 μm in diameter (PM2.5; PM10; PM2.5-10).

Genome-wide association study of breakfast skipping links clock regulation with food timing

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Thursday, June 13, 2019

Little is known about the contribution of genetic variation to food timing, and breakfast has been determined to exhibit the most heritable meal timing. As breakfast timing and skipping are not routinely measured in large cohort studies, alternative approaches include analyses of correlated traits.

Making smarter decisions faster: systems engineering to improve the global public health response to HIV

Current HIV/AIDS Reports, Thursday, June 13, 2019

This review offers an operational definition of systems engineering (SE) as applied to public health, reviews applications of SE in the field of HIV, and identifies opportunities and challenges of broader application of SE in global health.

Plasma lipidomics profiles after a diet characterized by whole grains compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars

Current Developments in Nutrition, Thursday, June 13, 2019

Dietary patterns high in fiber from sources including whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, are associated with lower risk of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The researchers investigated how plasma lipidomics profiles differed between a diet high in whole grains (WG) versus a diet high in refined grains and added sugars (RG).

Maternal employment and children's dietary diversity scores in southwestern Guatemala (P10-039-19)

Current Developments in Nutrition, Thursday, June 13, 2019

The researchers assessed the relationship between maternal employment and children's dietary diversity in rural Guatemala.

Epigenome-wide association study of diet quality in the Women's Health Initiative (OR31-06-19)

Current Developments in Nutrition, Thursday, June 13, 2019

This study examined the influence of diet on the methylome by analyzing 428,019 cytosine-guanine nucleotide pair (CpG) sites and assessing whether diet quality was associated with differential methylation patterns.

Cartoid artery displacement and cardiovascular disease risk in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Vascular Medicine, Thursday, June 13, 2019

Novel technology permits quantification of common carotid artery (CCA) displacement, which is traditionally ignored. The researchers evaluated associations with CCA displacement and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and events in a large, multi-ethnic cohort.

Associations between vaginal bacteria implicated in HIV acquisition risk and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines

Sexually Transmitted Infections, Thursday, June 13, 2019

Recent studies have identified vaginal bacterial taxa associated with increased HIV risk. A possible mechanism to explain these results is that individual taxa differentially promote cervicovaginal inflammation. This study aimed to explore relationships between concentrations of bacteria previously linked to HIV acquisition and vaginal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.