Environmental health sciences in a translational research framework: more than benches and bedsides
Environmental health scientists may find it challenging to fit the structure of the questions addressed in their discipline into the prevailing paradigm for translational research. This paper aims to frame the translational science paradigm to address the stages of scientific discovery, knowledge acquisition, policy development, and evaluation in a manner relevant to the environmental health sciences. The intention is to characterize differences between environmental health sciences and clinical medicine, and to orient this effort towards public health goals.
Firearm assault injuries by residence and injury occurrence location
Research on spatial injury patterns is limited by a lack of precise injury occurrence location data. Using linked hospital and death records, this study examined residence and injury locations for firearm assaults and homicides in or among residents of King County, Washington, USA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014.
Health provider training is associated with improved engagement in HIV care among adolescents and young adults in Kenya
Adolescents and young adults (AYA) have poorer retention, viral suppression, and survival than other age groups. In order to investigate these phenomena, this study evaluated correlates of initial AYA engagement in HIV care at facilities participating in a randomized trial in Kenya.
Acceptability and outcomes of distributing HIV self-tests for male partner testing in Kenyan maternal child health and family planning clinics
Providing HIV self-tests to women for distribution to male partners may provide a unique opportunity to increase male partner and couples testing among women in HIV high-burden settings. Between November 2017 and June 2018, investigators offered self-tests for at-home couples or partner HIV-testing to HIV-uninfected women seeking routine maternal child health and family planning services at 8 facilities in Kisumu, Kenya.
Sociodemographic, clinical and birth hospitalization characteristics and infant Hepatitis B vaccination in Washington State
Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine is recommended at birth; however, national coverage estimates fall far below target levels. Studies describing the factors associated with infant HepB vaccination are lacking. This study aimed to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and birth hospitalization factors associated with timely receipt of the first HepB vaccine dose.
Application of blood concentration biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology: example of carotenid and tocopherol intake in relation to chronic disease risk
Biomarkers provide potential to objectively measure the intake of nutrients and foods, and thereby to strengthen nutritional epidemiology association studies. However, there are only a few established intake biomarkers, mostly based on recovery of nutrients or their metabolites in urine. Blood concentration measures provide a potential biomarker source for many additional nutritional variables, but their use in disease-association studies requires further development. The aim of this study was to apply recently proposed serum-based carotenoid and tocopherol intake biomarkers and to examine their association with the incidence of major cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes in a subset of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts.
Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms are associated with incident chronic back pain: a longitudinal twin study of older male veterans
The objective of this study was to examine the association of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with incident chronic back pain (CBP), while controlling for genetic factors and early family environment. In current literature, it is unknown whether PTSD symptoms are associated with an increased incidence of CBP.
Demographic-specific rates for life events in the Cardiovascular Health Study and comparisons with other studies
The researchers use the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multi-site heterogeneous sample of Medicare enrollees (N = 5,849) to provide rates for specific life events experienced within 6 months; (1b) they present rates for 29 other studies of community-residing older adults (N = 41,308); (2) for the CHS, they provide demographic-specific rates and predicted probabilities for age [young-old (65-75) vs old-old (≥75)], gender, race, marital status, and education.
Heritability and individuality of the plasma sodium concentration: a twin study in the US Veteran population
Little is known about the population genetics of water balance. A recent meta-GWAS on plasma sodium concentration identified novel loci of high biological plausibility, yet heritability was never convincingly shown in European ancestry. The present analysis linked the Vietnam Era Twin Registry with the Department of Veterans Affairs VistA database.
The prevalence and antifolate drug resistance profiles of Plasmodium falciparum in study participants randomized to discontinue or continue cotrimoxazole prophylaxis
Cotrimoxazole prevents opportunistic infections including falciparum malaria in HIV-infected individuals but there are concerns of cross-resistance to other antifolate drugs such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antifolate-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with SP resistance in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment randomized to discontinue (STOP-CTX), or continue (CTX) cotrimoxazole in Western Kenya.