CYP2D6-inhibiting medication use and inherited CYP2D6 variation in relation to adverse breast cancer outcomes after tamoxifen therapy
Tamoxifen is widely used to reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC) recurrence and extend disease-free survival among women with estrogen-sensitive breast cancers. Tamoxifen efficacy is thought to be attributable to its active metabolite, which is formed through a reaction catalyzed by the P450 enzyme, CYP2D6. Inhibition of tamoxifen metabolism as a result of germline genetic variation and/or use of CYP2D6-inhibiting medications ("inhibitors") is hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse BC outcomes among women taking tamoxifen.
Association between Titin loss-of-function variants and early-onset atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The researchers set out to perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF.
Association between titin loss-of-function variants and early-onset atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The researchers performed large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF.
Free-floating bikeshare and helmet use in Seattle, WA
Wearing a helmet when bicycling prevents traumatic brain injury in the event of a crash. Most cyclists nationwide use helmets when riding. However, the growth of free-floating bike sharing systems, which offer short-term access to bicycles but not helmets, may erode helmet-wearing norms among cyclists. The researchers counted cyclists over several hours at four locations in Seattle, WA. They categorized each rider according to whether he or she was wearing a helmet and to whether or not he or she was riding a bike share bike. Whereas 91% of riders of private bikes wore helmets, only 20% of bike share riders wore helmets. Moreover, in locations where a greater proportion of riders were on bikes hare bikes, fewer riders of private bicycles wore helmets (r = - 0.96, p = 0.04). The impact of bike sharing programs on helmet wearing norms among private bike riders warrants further exploration.
Higher prevalence of viral control in HIV-1-infected women in serodiscordant relationships
HIV-1-discordant couples that remain discordant despite repeated exposure may differ from the general population in their distribution of transmission risk factors, including low plasma viral load (PVL) in the infected partner even in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We followed two cohorts of HIV-1-infected Kenyan women: females in discordant couples (FDC) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared the distribution of undetectable (<150 copies/mL) and low PVL (<1,000 copies/mL) between the cohorts using bootstrap methods and exact Poisson regression.
Polygenic risk scores for prediction of breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes
Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. The researchers' aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies.
Integrating HIV testing into syphilis partner services in Mississippi to improve HIV case finding
Mississippi (MS) has the 10th highest rate of new HIV infections in the United States. The Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) integrated partner HIV testing into syphilis partner services (PS) in 2014, but the effectiveness of this as an HIV case-finding strategy has not been evaluated.
GWAS and colocalization analyses implicate carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque loci in cardiovascular outcomes
Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque.
Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls.
Yield and consistency in arrhythmia detection with patch electrocardiographic monitoring: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Patch electrocardiographic (ECG) monitors permit extended noninvasive ambulatory monitoring. To guide use of these devices, information is needed about their performance. We sought to determine in a large general population sample the acceptability of patch ECG monitors, the yield of arrhythmia detection, and the consistency of findings in participants monitored twice.