Infant birth size and early infant pneumonia predict linear growth faltering among HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Kenya
Stunting remains a global health priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying determinants of linear growth in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants can inform interventions to prevent stunting in this vulnerable population.
Prevalence and predictors of unmet contraceptive need in HIV-positive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya
Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are a key population for HIV prevention and treatment interventions, but less attention is given to their family planning needs. The researchers evaluated the prevalence and predictors of unmet contraceptive need in HIV-positive FSWs.
Genetic analyses of diverse populations improves discovery for complex traits
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. The researchers advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.
Designing optimal breakfast for the United States using linear programming and the NHANES 2011-2014 database: a study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI)
The quality of dietary patterns can be optimized using a mathematical technique known as linear programming (LP). LP methods have rarely been applied to individual meals. The present LP models optimized the breakfast meal for those participants in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 who ate breakfast (n = 11,565). LP modeling methods can build on existing dietary patterns to construct food-based dietary guidelines and identify individual meals and/or snacks that need improvement.
Association between genetically predicted polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cancer: a Mendelian randomization study
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, the researchers sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer.
Perceptions of pregnancy occurring among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya
Among HIV serodiscordant couples, most conception involves condomless sex and may confer a period with increased HIV transmission risk if HIV viral load is not suppressed and other precautions are not used. Safer conception strategies enable HIV serodiscordant couples to attain their pregnancy goals while markedly reducing this risk. The researchers explored the perceptions and beliefs held by HIV serodiscordant couples and health care providers concerning pregnancy among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and gathered their thoughts about how these might influence use of safer conception methods.
Contraceptive method switching among women living in sub-Saharan Africa participating in an HIV-1 prevention trial: a prospective cohort study
Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method uptake has been low within the context of HIV prevention trials. Within a multinational study (MTN-020/ASPIRE), the Contraceptive Action Team improved LARC accessibility and uptake. In this secondary analysis, the researchers determined the rate of contraceptive method continuation among the women enrolled.
Development of a neighborhood walkability index for studying neighborhood physical activity contexts in communities across the U.S. over the past three decades
To examine how urban form shapes physical activity and health over time, a measure of neighborhood walkability is needed that can be linked to cohort studies with participants living across the United States (U.S.) that have been followed over the past decades.
Disease progression in relation to pre-onset parity among women with rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often ameliorates during pregnancy and flares postpartum, but the relationship of pregnancy and childbirth to RA prognosis is unclear. the researchers examined RA severity for association with parity prior to RA onset and asked whether time from birth (latency) and/or the mother's HLA genotype influenced results.
Democratizing precision medicine through community engagement
Recent scholarship has generated much optimism about the potential of ‐omics and precision medicine to transform health care, particularly by discovering mechanisms of disease pathology, identifying sources of interindividual variability, and developing personalized therapeutics. To transform clinical care, this innovative research must be translated into practice, a step easy to ignore in discovery phases.