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The association of ambient air pollution with sleep apnea: the multi-ethnic study of Atherosclerosis

Annals of the American Thoracic Society, Thursday, December 20, 2018

Air pollution may influence sleep through airway inflammation or autonomic nervous system pathway alterations. Epidemiological studies may provide evidence of relationships between chronic air pollution exposure and sleep apnea. The researchers set out to determine if ambient-derived pollution exposure was associated with obstructive sleep apnea and objective sleep disruption.

Negative affect and risk of atrial fibrillation: MESA

Journal of the American Heart Association, Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Current literature examining the prospective relationship between depression and other measures of negative affect with atrial fibrillation (AF) are limited. The researchers determined the relationships of depression, anger, anxiety, and chronic stress with incident AF in a multiethnic cohort of middle- and older-aged adults.

Dichotomous scoring of TDP-43 proteinopathy from specific brain regions in 27 academic research centers: associations with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease pathologies

Acta Neuropathologica Communications , Wednesday, December 19, 2018

TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy is a common brain pathology in elderly persons, but much remains to be learned about this high-morbidity condition. Published stage-based systems for operationalizing disease severity rely on the involvement (presence/absence) of pathology in specific anatomic regions. To examine the comorbidities associated with TDP-43 pathology in aged individuals, the researchers studied data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Neuropathology Data Set.

Pharmacokinetic, biologic, and epidemiologic differences in MPA- and NET-based progestin-only injectable contraceptives relative to the potential impact on HIV acquisition in women

Contraception, Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Access to safe and effective contraceptive choices is a reproductive right and contributes tremendously to improvements in maternal and child health. Progestin-only injectables, particularly intramuscularly injected depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), have received increased attention given findings suggesting a potential association with increased HIV risk. For women at high risk of HIV, the World Health Organization's Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC) currently aggregate recommendations for all progestin-only injectables, including DMPA-IM, subcutaneously injected DMPA (DMPA-SC) and intramuscularly injected norethindrone/ norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), except in the case of some drug interactions. The researchers considered whether published data indicate differences or similarities between these injectables relevant to risk of acquiring HIV.

Differences by victim race and ethnicity in race- and ethnicity-motivated violent bias crimes: a national study

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Monday, December 17, 2018

Over 80% of bias-motivated violent victimization is motivated by race or ethnicity and over 50% of bias victimization occurs in non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). The researchers' aim was to determine the risk and health impacts of race/ethnicity-motivated violent victimization by victim race/ethnicity. They examined data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (2003-2015) to estimate violent victimization risk by victim race/ethnicity across race/ethnicity bias victimization, other types of bias victimizations, and non-bias violent victimizations.

Lessons from PrEP: A qualitative study investigating how clinical and policy experts weigh ethics and evidence when evaluating preventive medications for use in pregnant and breastfeeding women

AIDS and Behavior, Friday, December 14, 2018

This study explored how multinational HIV experts weigh clinical, evidential, and ethical considerations regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis in pregnant/breastfeeding women. 

Periods of high dengue transmission defined by rainfall do not impact efficacy of dengue vaccine in regions of endemic disease

PLoS One, Thursday, December 13, 2018

This study evaluated the association of rainy season with overall dengue disease incidence and with the efficacy of the Sanofi Pasteur recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent vaccine in two randomized, controlled multicenter phase III clinical trials in Asia and Latin America.

Contribution of adipose tissue inflammation to the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Comprehensive Physiology, Thursday, December 13, 2018

The objective of this comprehensive review is to summarize and discuss the available evidence of how adipose tissue inflammation affects insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

Agnostic pathway/gene set analysis of genome-wide association data identifies associations for pancreatic cancer

Journal of the national cancer institute, Wednesday, December 12, 2018

The researchers conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. They performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Preference of specimen collection methods for human papillomavirus detection for cervical cancer screening: a cross-sectional study of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya

Reproductive Health, Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Self-collection of genital specimens for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection may increase cervical cancer screening uptake. Researchers hypothesized that women would prefer self-collection to clinician-collection of genital specimens. To test this hypothesis, and women's preference between two different self-collection approaches, a total of 199 women were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Mombasa, Kenya.