GWAS and colocalization analyses implicate carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque loci in cardiovascular outcomes
Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque.
Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls.
Standardized biogeographic grouping system for annotating populations in pharmacogenetic research
The varying frequencies of pharmacogenetic alleles between populations have important implications for the impact of these alleles in different populations. Current population grouping methods to communicate these patterns are insufficient as they are inconsistent and fail to reflect the global distribution of genetic variability. To facilitate and standardize the reporting of variability in pharmacogenetic allele frequencies, we present seven geographically-defined groups: American, Central/South Asian, East Asian, European, Near Eastern, Oceanian, and Sub-Saharan African, and two admixed groups: African American/Afro-Caribbean and Latino.
Case definitions of hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection vary in validity
Multiple case definitions for post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are used across public health, research, and clinical practice.
Yield and consistency in arrhythmia detection with patch electrocardiographic monitoring: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Patch electrocardiographic (ECG) monitors permit extended noninvasive ambulatory monitoring. To guide use of these devices, information is needed about their performance. We sought to determine in a large general population sample the acceptability of patch ECG monitors, the yield of arrhythmia detection, and the consistency of findings in participants monitored twice.
A high throughput bead-based affinity assay enables analysis of genital protein signatures in women at risk of HIV infection
Women at high risk of HIV infection, including sex workers and those with active genital inflammation, have molecular signatures of immune activation and epithelial barrier remodeling in samples of their genital mucosa. These alterations in the local immunological milieu are likely to impact HIV susceptibility. We here analyze host genital protein signatures in HIV uninfected women, with high frequency of condom use, living in HIV-serodiscordant relationships.
Utilization of injury care case studies: a systematic review of the World Health Organization's "Strengthening care for the injured: Success stories and lessons learned from around the world"
Translation of evidence to practice is a public health priority. Worldwide, injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Case study publications are common and provide potentially reproducible examples of successful interventions in healthcare from the patient to systems level. However, data on how well case study publications are utilized are limited. To the researchers' knowledge, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the only collection of international case studies on injury care at the policy level. They aimed to determine the degree to which these injury care case studies have been translated to practice and to identify opportunities for enhancement of the evidence-to-practice pathway for injury care case studies overall.
Global and national guidance for the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis during peri-conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a well-established biomedical HIV prevention strategy and recommended to reduce HIV risk during peri-conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Efforts are needed to translate global recommendations into national guidelines and implementation strategies. This article presents the current status of policy guidance for the use of PrEP during peri-conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a particular focus on high prevalence countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa.
Getting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to the people: opportunities, challenges and examples of successful health service models of PrEP implementation
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals could prevent millions of infections, yet effective strategies to get PrEP delivered are just being defined. This editorial introduces a series of 17 articles which form a special issue of Sexual Health focused on the opportunities and challenges for health service providers engaged in PrEP prescribing. All pieces presented here share useful lessons from PrEP pioneers; more than that, they should serve as catalysts to accelerate PrEP implementation around the world.
Understanding patients' perspectives and information needs following a positive home human papillomavirus self-sampling kit result
We explored patient perspectives after a positive human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling result to describe experiences and information needs for this home-based screening modality. We recruited women who tested high-risk (hr) HPV positive during a pragmatic trial evaluating mailed hrHPV self-sampling kits as an outreach strategy for women overdue for Pap screening in a U.S. integrated health care system. Telephone interviews were conducted from 2014 to 2017.