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Comparisons of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope variants in blood and genital fluids near the time of male-to-female transmission

Journal of Virology, Wednesday, April 17, 2019

To better understand the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), the genetic characteristics of male blood and genital viruses were compared to the imputed founding virus population in their female partners. Initially serodiscordant heterosexual African couples with sequence-confirmed male-to-female HIV-1 transmission and blood and genitial specimens near the time of transmission were studied. 

The consumption of chili peppers and the risk of colorectal cancer: a matched case-control study

World Journal of Surgical Oncology, Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Chili peppers have properties that plausibly could either increase or decrease a person's risk of developing colorectal cancer, but their consumption in relation to disease risk has not been well studied. This study sought to explore the association between chili peppers intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.

Traditional healers, hiv outcomes, and mortality among people living with hiv in Senegal, West Africa

AIDS, Tuesday, April 16, 2019

The goals of this study were to determine the frequency of traditional healer (TH) use among PLHIV in Senegal, to identify predictors of TH use, and to determine if TH use is associated with HIV outcomes.

Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer

Nature Communications, Monday, April 15, 2019

Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. This study hypothesizes that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen.

Intimate partner homicide of adolescents

JAMA Pediatrics, Monday, April 15, 2019

Intimate partner violence during adolescence is widespread, and consequences can be severe. Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is the most extreme form of intimate partner violence, but literature on IPH has almost exclusively focused on adults. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescent homicides that is perpetrated by intimate partners and to describe the victim, perpetrator, and incident characteristics of these IPHs.

Recent use of oral contraceptives and risk of luminal B, triple-negative, and HER2-overexpressing breast cancer

Hormones & Cancer, Monday, April 15, 2019

Oral contraceptive use is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer and is common among reproductive-aged women in the USA. Its relationship with less common, more aggressive, molecular subtypes is less clear. A population-based case-case analysis was conducted in this study, comparing three less common molecular subtypes to luminal A breast cancer among 1701 premenopausal cases aged 21-49 diagnosed with a first primary invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2015.

Biomarkers of dietary omega-6 fatty acids and incident cardiovascular disease and mortality: an individual-level pooled analysis of 30 cohort studies

Circulation, Thursday, April 11, 2019

Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, this study evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.

Obstetrical and infant outcomes among women with neoplasms during pregnancy

Cancer Causes & Control, Thursday, April 11, 2019

One in 1,000 pregnancies is complicated by malignancies. Prevalence is greater for benign neoplasms. Adverse outcomes among women with malignancies have been reported. Less is known of postpartum outcomes for infants, or outcomes among women with benign neoplasms. Researchers conducted a population-based cohort study using Washington State-linked vital-hospital discharge records in order to investigate these outcomes among women with neoplasms.

Left atrial mechanical function and incident ischemic cerebrovascular events independent of AF

JACC Cardiovascular Imaging, Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Left atrial (LA) remodeling is a known predictor of atrial fibrillation, which is a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular events (CVE). Despite studies showing an association between LA remodeling and ischemic CVE, the association of LA mechanical function with ischemic CVE in a population free of known cardiovascular disease is not fully studied. This study sought to assess the association of baseline LA phasic function measured with cardia magnetic resonance and incident ischemic CVE.

gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya

BMC Microbiology, Monday, April 8, 2019

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.