Subclinical tuberculosis among adults with HIV: clinical features and outcomes in a South African cohort
Subclinical tuberculosis is an asymptomatic disease phase with important relevance to persons living with HIV. We describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk of mortality for HIV-infected adults with subclinical tuberculosis.
Observational studies that seek to emulate a randomized trial of screening to reduce the incidence of cancer: do they address the question we'd like to have an answer?
Some forms of cancer screening have the potential to reduce cancer incidence, if the screening modality can identify not only a malignancy but a treatable pre-malignant condition (such as a colon polyp) as well. Cohort studies of the efficacy of these forms of screening in reducing the incidence of cancer face many challenges, notably the difficulty in distinguishing whether a test performed in a given individual was screening or diagnostic in nature.
Effectiveness of intensive endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in China: a community-based study
Evidence is required to evaluate the effectiveness of population-level endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer (EC). In this study, 5,632 permanent residents aged 25-65 years from 6 villages of Hua County, Henan Province of China, were defined as the screening cohort and offered intensive endoscopic screening.
Negative affect and risk of atrial fibrillation: MESA
The impact of a city-level minimum wage policy on supermarket food prices by food quality metrics: a two-year follow up study
Our objective was to examine the effects of increasing minimum wage on supermarket food prices in Seattle over 2 years of policy implementation, overall and differentially across food quality metrics.
Beyond HIV prevention: everyday life priorities and demand for PrEP among Ugandan HIV serodiscordant couples
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection is being rolled out in Africa. The uptake of PrEP to date has varied across populations and locations. We seek to understand the drivers of demand for PrEP through analysis of qualitative data collected in conjunction with a PrEP demonstration project involving East African HIV serodiscordant couples. Our goal was to inform demand creation by understanding what PrEP means - beyond HIV prevention - for the lives of users.
Cytomegalovirus shedding from breastmilk and mucosal sites in healthy post-partum women: a pilot study
Mother-to-child cytomegalovirus (CMV) breastmilk transmission can occur in the postnatal period. In a pilot study, the researchers measured daily CMV detection by PCR in breastmilk, vaginal, and saliva samples from 9 healthy CMV-seropositive postpartum women for 28 days.
An update on clonality: what smooth muscle cell type makes up the atherosclerotic plaque?
Almost 50 years ago, Earl Benditt and his son John described the clonality of the atherosclerotic plaque. This led Benditt to propose that the atherosclerotic lesion was a smooth muscle neoplasm, similar to the leiomyomata seen in the uterus of most women. Four advances have made it important to reconsider Benditt's observations.
Trans-ethnic association study of blood pressure determinants in over 750,000 individuals
In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, the researchers reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis.
Intra-individual variation in markers of intestinal permeability and adipose tissue inflammation in healthy normal weight to obese adults
Intestinal permeability and adipose tissue inflammation are considered mechanistic links in the relationship between diet, obesity, and chronic disease. However, methods to measure both are not well standardized, and the reliability of commonly used measures is not known.