Fruits, vegetables, and health: A comprehensive narrative, umbrella review of the science and recommendations for enhanced public policy to improve intake
Fruit and vegetables (F&V) have been a cornerstone of healthy dietary recommendations; the 2015-2020 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that F&V constitute one-half of the plate at each meal. F&V include a diverse collection of plant foods that vary in their energy, nutrient, and dietary bioactive contents. F&V have potential health-promoting effects beyond providing basic nutrition needs in humans, including their role in reducing inflammation and their potential preventive effects on various chronic disease states leading to decreases in years lost due to premature mortality and years lived with disability/morbidity. Current global intakes of F&V are well below recommendations.
Proteomic analysis of plasma reveals fat mass influences cancer-related pathways in healthy humans fed controlled diets differing in glycemic load
Increased adiposity and diets high in glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased risk of many chronic diseases including cancer. Using plasma from 80 healthy individuals [40 men/40 women, 29 with DXA-derived low-fat mass (FM) and 51 with high FM] in a randomized crossover-controlled feeding trial and arrays populated with 3504 antibodies, the researchers measured plasma proteins collected at baseline and end of each of two 28-day controlled diets: a low GL diet high in whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables (WG) and a high GL diet high in refined grains and added sugars (RG).
Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccination and association with HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNA detection in young women
Despite a reduction in the prevalence of vaccine-preventable types of human papillomavirus (HPV), attributed to increased HPV vaccine uptake, HPV continues to be a major cause of cancer in the United States.
Individualized atrophy scores predict dementia onset in familial frontotemporal lobar degradation
Some models of therapy for neurodegenerative diseases envision starting treatment before symptoms develop. Demonstrating that such treatments are effective requires accurate knowledge of when symptoms would have started without treatment. Familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration offers a unique opportunity to develop predictors of symptom onset.
Mortality in adult patients with culture-positive and culture-negative meningitis in the Botswana national meningitis survey: a prevalent cohort study
CNS infections are a leading cause of HIV-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, but causes and outcomes are poorly defined. The researchers aimed to determine mortality and predictors of mortality in adults evaluated for meningitis in Botswana, which has an estimated 23% HIV prevalence among adults.
Obstetrical and infant outcomes among women with neoplasms during pregnancy
One in 1,000 pregnancies is complicated by malignancies. Prevalence is greater for benign neoplasms. Adverse outcomes among women with malignancies have been reported. Less is known of postpartum outcomes for infants, or outcomes among women with benign neoplasms.
Comprehensive HIV risk reduction interventions for 2020 and beyond: product choices and effective service-delivery platforms for individual needs and population-level impact
This review summarizes key HIV prevention strategies in the 2020 toolkit and discusses opportunities to maximize the public health impact of these prevention interventions at a population level.
Epidemiology of adult meningitis during antiretroviral therapy scale-up in southern Africa: results from the Botswana national meningitis survey
Data on meningitis epidemiology in high HIV-prevalence African settings following antiretroviral therapy scale-up are lacking. The researchers described epidemiology of adult meningitis in Botswana over a 16-year period.
GWAS of QRS duration identifies new loci specific to Hispanic/Latino populations
The electrocardiographically quantified QRS duration measures ventricular depolarization and conduction. QRS prolongation has been associated with poor heart failure prognosis and cardiovascular mortality, including sudden death. While previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 32 QRS SNPs across 26 loci among European, African, and Asian-descent populations, the genetics of QRS among Hispanics/Latinos has not been previously explored.
Associations of diet soda and non-caloric artificial sweetener use with markers of glucose and insulin homeostasis and incident diabetes: the Strong Heart Family Study
Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are marketed as healthier alternatives to sugar, but the relationship between consumption of NAS and development of diabetes is unclear. This study assessed the associations of diet soda and NAS consumption with (1) early markers of insulin and glucose homeostasis (cross-sectionally) and (2) incident diabetes (over an average of 8 years of follow-up) among American Indians, a population with high rates of obesity.