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Therapeutic HSV-2 vaccine decreases recurrent virus shedding and recurrent genital herpes disease

Vaccine, Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 is a common persistent infection that frequently reactivates to cause recurrent lesions and recurrent viral shedding which is incompletely controlled by antiviral therapy. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing 2 HSV-2 proteins, gD2 and ICP4, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant.

Point-of-care HIV viral load testing: an essential tool for a sustainable global HIV/AIDS response

Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Wednesday, May 15, 2019

The global public health community has set ambitious treatment targets to end the HIV/AIDS pandemic. With the notable absence of a cure, the goal of HIV treatment is to achieve sustained suppression of an HIV viral load, which allows for immunological recovery and reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission.

Assessment of executive function declines in presymptomatic and mildly symptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia: NIH-EXAMINER as a potential clinical trial endpoint

Alzheimer's & Dementia, Saturday, May 11, 2019

Identifying clinical measures that track disease in the earliest stages of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is important for clinical trials. Familial FTLD provides a unique paradigm to study early FTLD. Executive dysfunction is a clinically relevant hallmark of FTLD and may be a marker of disease progression.

Global DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications in human and nonhuman primate brain in association with prenatal alcohol exposure

Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, Friday, May 10, 2019

Based upon experimental animal studies, the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PNAE)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have been attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. However, there are no direct analyses of human brain tissue. Immunohistochemical detection of global epigenetic markers was performed during this study on temporal lobe samples of autopsied fetuses and infants with documented PNAE.

Mendelian randomization evaluation of causal effects of fibrinogen on incident coronary heart disease

PLoS One, Friday, May 10, 2019

Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease and myocardial infraction using Mendelian randomization used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust mendelian randomization methodologies. This study evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both coronary heart disease and myocardial infraction using mendelian randomization.

Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions: estimates for real-world implementation needed

EClinical Medicine, Thursday, May 9, 2019

Despite important reductions in HIV-1 incidence in sub-Saharan Africa over the past decade, current projections suggest that UNAIDS epidemic control targets for 2020 will not be met. The rapidly expanding toolkit of HIV-1 prevention methods – including risk and harm reduction interventions, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), and antiretrovirals for treatment as prevention (TasP), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), arguably contains the components necessary, when delivered in combination, to curtail the epidemic substantially.

Full-fat dairy food intake is associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes among American Indians with low total dairy food intake

The Journal of Nutrition, Thursday, May 9, 2019

Diet plays a key role in development of diabetes, and there has been recent interest in better understanding the association of dairy food intake with diabetes. This study examined the associations of full-fat and low-fat dairy food intake with incident diabetes among American Indians-a population with a high burden of diabetes.

Proceedings of the fourth international molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) meeting

Cancer Causes & Control , Wednesday, May 8, 2019

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE).

Use of statin medications following diagnosis in relation to survival among women with ovarian cancer

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Tuesday, May 7, 2019

It has been suggested that the likelihood of survival among women with ovarian cancer could be increased by post-diagnosis statin use. This study examines the potential association between post-diagnosis statin use and cancer-specific mortality among women with ovarian cancer.

Successes and failures of the live-attenuated influenza vaccine: can we do better?

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Monday, May 6, 2019

The effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) can vary widely, ranging from 0 - 50%. The reasons for these discrepancies remain largely unclear.  This study used mathematical models to explore how the efficacy of LAIV is affected by the degree of mismatch with the currently circulating influenza strain and interference with pre-existing immunity.