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The role of costing in the introduction and scale-up of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: evidence from integrating PrEP into routine maternal and child health and family planning clinics in western Kenya

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

Understanding the cost of strategies to reach and deliver pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to priority populations is essential to assess the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of HIV prevention programmes. Providing PrEP through maternal and child health and family planning clinics offers a promising strategy to reach women in high HIV burden settings. The researchers estimated incremental costs and explored the cost drivers of integrating PrEP delivery into routine maternal and child health and family planning services in Kenya.

Low risk of social harms in an HIV assisted partner services programme in Cameroon

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

HIV transmission through heterosexual sex and sex between men accounts for the majority of new HIV infections. Notifying and offering testing services to partners of people living with HIV van be an effective way of reaching people at higher risk of HIV and linking them to care. Assisted partner notification services have been a routine part of HIV care programs in the US and Europe to increase HIV case finding, and has been implemented at a programmatic level in SSA in Cameroon. Increasingly, it is being promoted through the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief as a strategy for sexual partner tracing, notification and HIV testing.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis differentially alters circulting and mucosal immune cell activation in HSV-2 seropositive women

AIDS, Monday, July 22, 2019

Oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an important tool for prevention of new HIV infections, which also reduces subclinical HSV-2 shedding and symptomatic lesion in HIV-negative, HSV-2 seropositive individuals. However, the impact of PrEP on mucosal immunity has not been examined in detail. Here, the researchers evaluate paired genital tissue and systemic immune profiles to characterize the immunological effects of PrEP in HIV-negative, HSV-2 seropositive African women sexually exposed to HIV.

Preferences for firearm locking devices and device features among participants in a firearm safety event

The Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, Saturday, July 20, 2019

Safe firearm storage is associated with a lower risk of firearm-related injury and death. Although providing firearm locking devices is a key component of firearm safety interventions, little is known about the types and characteristics of devices preferred by firearm users or others who make decisions about firearm storage. The aim of this study is to describe preferences for firearm locking devices and device features among firearm safety event participants.

Estimating the cost of illness and burden of disease associated with the 2014-2015 chikungunya outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Friday, July 19, 2019

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus that causes fever and severe polyarthralgia, swept through the Americas in 2014 with almost 2 million suspected or confirmed cases reported by April 2016. In this study, the researchers estimate the direct medical costs, cost of lost wages due to absenteeism, and years lived with disability (YLD) associated with the 2014-2015 CHIKV outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI).

Assessing clinical heterogeneity in sepsis through treatment patterns and machine learning

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Associations, Wednesday, July 17, 2019

The researchers' objective was to use unsupervised topic modeling to evaluate heterogeneity in sepsis treatment patterns contained within granular data of electronic health records.

Confurine tenofovir concentrations correlate with plasma and relates to TDF adherence: a randomized directly-observed pharmacokinetic trial (TARGET study)

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Direct measurement of tenofovir (TFV) in urine could be an objective measure to monitor adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or TFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). The researchers describe urine TFV concentrations in adults with controlled levels of adherence to advance development and enable interpretation of point-of-care urine assays.

Depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health care-seeking in central Mozambique

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Wednesday, July 17, 2019

There is scant research on depressive symptoms (DS), suicidal ideation (SI), and mental health care-seeking in Mozambique. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess factors associated with DS, SI, and mental health care-seeking among 3080 individuals interviewed in a representative household survey in Sofala and Manica provinces, Mozambique.

Interaction of nutritional status and diabetes on active and latent tuberculosis: a cross-sectional analysis

BMC Infectious Diseases, Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Malnutrition and diabetes are risk factors for active tuberculosis (TB), possible risk factors for latent TB infection (LTBI), and may interact to alter their effect on these outcomes. Studies to date have not investigated this interaction.

Field-based evaluation of malaria outbreak detection and response in Mudzi and Goromonzi districts, Zimbabwe - 2017

Global Public Health, Monday, July 15, 2019

National-level evaluations may fail to identify capacity improvements for detecting and responding to outbreaks which begin and are first detected at the local level. In response to this issue, the researchers conducted a field-based assessment of the malaria outbreak surveillance system in Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe.