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Getting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to the people: opportunities, challenges and examples of successful health service models of PrEP implementation

Sexual Health, Friday, November 30, 2018

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals could prevent millions of infections, yet effective strategies to get PrEP delivered are just being defined. This editorial introduces a series of 17 articles which form a special issue of Sexual Health focused on the opportunities and challenges for health service providers engaged in PrEP prescribing. All pieces presented here share useful lessons from PrEP pioneers; more than that, they should serve as catalysts to accelerate PrEP implementation around the world.

A high throughput bead-based affinity assay enables analysis of genital protein signatures in women at risk of HIV infection

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, Friday, November 30, 2018

Women at high risk of HIV infection, including sex workers and those with active genital inflammation, have molecular signatures of immune activation and epithelial barrier remodeling in samples of their genital mucosa. These alterations in the local immunological milieu are likely to impact HIV susceptibility. We here analyze host genital protein signatures in HIV uninfected women, with high frequency of condom use, living in HIV-serodiscordant relationships.

Understanding patients' perspectives and information needs following a positive home human papillomavirus self-sampling kit result

Journal of Women's Health, Tuesday, November 27, 2018

We explored patient perspectives after a positive human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling result to describe experiences and information needs for this home-based screening modality. We recruited women who tested high-risk (hr) HPV positive during a pragmatic trial evaluating mailed hrHPV self-sampling kits as an outreach strategy for women overdue for Pap screening in a U.S. integrated health care system. Telephone interviews were conducted from 2014 to 2017.

Cattle-associated risk factors for human tuberculosis in rural livestock-keeping communities, Uganda

Zoonoses and Public Health, Sunday, November 25, 2018

Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of human death worldwide. In cattle, TB infection results in productivity losses, trade barriers and zoonotic transmission via milk, meat or direct contact. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural communities in Uganda between 2014 and 2016 to evaluate the association between tuberculosis skin test (TST) positivity in humans and cattle-associated risk factors: household herd positivity and raw milk consumption. Human and cattle TSTs were performed in communities followed by a survey of household practices.

Motorcycle taxi programme increases safe riding behaviours among its drivers in Kampala, Uganda

Injury Prevention, Saturday, November 24, 2018

SafeBoda is a motorcycle taxi company that provides road safety training and helmets to its drivers in Kampala, Uganda. We sought to determine whether SafeBoda drivers are more likely to engage in safe riding behaviours than regular drivers (motorcycle taxi drivers not part of SafeBoda).

Association between intake of red and processed meat and survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Friday, November 23, 2018

Red and processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but it is not clear if intake is associated with patient survival after diagnosis METHODS: We pooled data from 7627 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 10 studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of intake of red and processed meat before diagnosis with overall and CRC-specific survival.

Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies

European Heart Journal, Thursday, November 22, 2018

There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after 'recalibration', a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied.

The Pediatric Guideline Adherence and Outcomes (PEGASUS) programme in severe traumatic brain injury: a single-centre hybrid implementation and effectiveness study

The Lancet: child and adolescent health, Thursday, November 22, 2018

There are no tested in-hospital care programmes for paediatric traumatic brain injury. The researchers aimed to assess implementation and effectiveness of the Pediatric Guideline Adherence and Outcomes (PEGASUS) programme in children with severe traumatic brain injury.

Episodic memory performance in a multi-ethnic longitudinal study of 13,037 elderly

PLoS One, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Age-related changes in memory are not uniform, even in the absence of dementia. Characterization of non-disease associated cognitive changes is crucial to gain a more complete understanding of brain aging. Episodic memory was investigated in 13,037 ethnically diverse elderly (ages 72 to 85 years) with two to 15 years of follow-up, and with known dementia status, age, sex, education, and APOE genotypes. Adjusted trajectories of episodic memory performance over time were estimated using Latent Class Mixed Models. Analysis was conducted using two samples at baseline evaluation: i) non-cognitively impaired individuals, and ii) all individuals regardless of dementia status. The researchers calculated the age-specific annual incidence rates of dementia in the non-demented elderly (n = 10,220).

Dengue seroprevalence in a cohort of schoolchildren and their siblings in Yucatan, Mexico (2015-2016)

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, Wednesday, November 21, 2018

The implementation of vector control interventions and potential introduction new tools requires baseline data to evaluate their direct and indirect effects. The objective of the study is to present the seroprevalence of dengue infection in a cohort of children 0 to 15 years old followed during 2015 to 2016, the risk factors and the role of enhanced surveillance strategies in three urban sites (Merida, Ticul and Progreso) in Yucatan, Mexico.