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Inherited genetic susceptibility of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome

Blood, Friday, July 26, 2019

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and demonstrate distinct somatic features, including CRLF2 rearrangement in approximately 50% of cases; however, the role of inherited genetic variation in ALL susceptibility among children with DS is unknown. Here, the researchers report the first genome-wide association study of DS-ALL, comprising a meta-analysis of four independent studies.

Developing an epidemiologic study to investigate risk factors for colorectal cancer among Alaska native people

Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, Friday, July 26, 2019

Alaska Native (AN) people have among the highest rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) recorded globally. Preventing CRC is an important health priority of AN tribal health leaders and communities. The researchers have been working to establish a tribally led, community-based, comprehensive investigation of lifestyle and genetic risk and protective factors for CRC among AN people.

Neighborhood environments and risk of incident atrial fibrillation: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Friday, July 26, 2019

Current approaches to prevent atrial fibrillation are limited to risk factor control at the individual level. Identifying population-based strategies to reduce atrial fibrillation incidence is also important. Improving the neighborhood environment may represent one such potential strategy.

Academic advancement in global surgery: appointment, promotion, and tenure: recommendations from the American Surgical Association working group on global surgery

Annals of Surgery, Thursday, July 25, 2019

There is growing interest in global surgery among US academic surgical departments. As academic global surgery is a relatively new field, departments may have minimal experience in evaluation of faculty contributions and how they integrate into the existing academic paradigm for promotion and tenure.

Assisted partner notification services for patients receiving HIV care and treatment in an HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya: a qualitative assessment of barrier and opportunities for scale-up

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

The researchers sought to describe barriers encountered and potential opportunities to providing aPNS to established patients living with HIV.

Assisted HIV partner services training in three sub-Saharan African countries: facilitators and barriers to sustainable approaches

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

In this paper, the researchers present and compare different aPS training strategies implemented by these three countries, and discuss facilitators and barriers associated with implementation of aPS training in sub-Saharan Africa.

Index participant characteristics and HIV assisted partner services efficacy in Kenya: results of a cluster randomized trial

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

In this analysis, the researchers explore differences in aPS efficacy by characteristics of index participants.

Integrating PrEP into HIV care clinics could improve partner testing services and reinforce mutual support among couples: provider views from a PrEP implementation project in Kenya

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

Using qualitative methods, the researchers explored provider perspective regarding the interaction of PrEP availability, PNS and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes within a project integrating PrEP services into HIV care clinics in eight counties in western and central Kenya.

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for adolescent girls and young women in Africa: from efficacy trials to delivery

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Africa have high HIV incidence despite scale-up of HIV testing and HIV treatment. Placebo-controlled trials of tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in diverse populations demonstrated that PrEP works with close to 100% effectiveness if taken with high, but not perfect, adherence. Divergent efficacy estimates among African AGYW led to demonstration and implementation projects to better understand motivations for HIV prevention, uptake, adherence and persistence to PrEP. To inform PrEP programmes, the design and initial findings from PrEP demonstration projects for AGYW are reviewed.

The role of costing in the introduction and scale-up of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: evidence from integrating PrEP into routine maternal and child health and family planning clinics in western Kenya

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, July 22, 2019

Understanding the cost of strategies to reach and deliver pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to priority populations is essential to assess the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of HIV prevention programmes. Providing PrEP through maternal and child health and family planning clinics offers a promising strategy to reach women in high HIV burden settings. The researchers estimated incremental costs and explored the cost drivers of integrating PrEP delivery into routine maternal and child health and family planning services in Kenya.