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Destress 9-1-1-an online mindfulness-based intervention in reducing stress among emergency medical dispatchers: a randomised controlled trial

Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) experience significant stress in the workplace. Yet, interventions aimed at reducing work-related stress are difficult to implement due to the logistic challenges associated with the relatively unique EMD work environment. This investigation tested the efficacy of a 7-week online mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) tailored to the EMD workforce.

Characterizing the local food environment and grocery-store decision making among a large American Indian community in the north-central USA: qualitative results from the Health Foods Healthy Families Feasibility Study

Public Health Nutrition, Friday, May 24, 2019

Perceptions of social-contextual food environments and associated factors that influence food purchases are understudied in American Indian (AI) communities. The purpose of the present study was to: (i) understand the perceived local food environment; (ii) investigate social-contextual factors that influence family food-purchasing choices; and (iii) identify diet intervention strategies.

Smoking, alcohol, and biliary tract cancer risk: a pooling project of 26 prospective studies

Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Friday, May 24, 2019

Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. This study found that smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. These findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.

Evaluation of significant genome-wide association studies risk - SNPs in young breast cancer patients

PLoS One, Friday, May 24, 2019

Genome-wide-association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Most of these studies were conducted primarily in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Therefore, this study set out to assess whether or not these breast cancer variants are also associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer in young premenopausal patients.

Exome sequencing of 20,791 cases of type 2 diabetes and 24,440 controls

Nature, Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Protein-coding genetic variants that strongly affect disease risk can yield relevant clues to disease pathogenesis. Here this study reports exome-sequencing analyses of 20,791 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 24,440 non-diabetic control participants from 5 ancestries. 

Joint association of mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index and polygenic risk score with breast cancer risk

Breast Cancer Research, Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Mammographic breast density, adjusted for age and body mass index, and a polygenic risk score (PRS), comprised of common genetic variation, are both strong risk factors for breast cancer and increase discrimination of risk models. Understanding their joint contribution will be important to more accurately predict risk.

Moving from one to many: insights from the growing list of pleiotropic cancer risk genes

British Journal of Cancer, Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Pleiotropy, a phenomenon in which a single gene affects multiple phenotypes, is becoming very common among different cancer types and cancer-related phenotypes, such as those in hormonal, cardiometabolic and inflammatory/immune conditions. The discovery of pleiotropic associations can improve our understanding of cancer and help to target investigation of genes with greater clinical relevance.

Association between bilirubin, atazanavir, and cardiovascular disease events among people living with HIV across the US

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Thursday, May 16, 2019

Bilirubin is an antioxidant that may suppress lipid oxidation. Elevated bilirubin is associated with decreased cardiovascular events in HIV-uninfected populations. This study examined these associations in people living with HIV.

The association between long-term air pollution and urinary catecholamines: evidence from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

Environmental Health Perspectives, Thursday, May 16, 2019

Autonomic nervous system effects have been hypothesized as a mechanism of air pollutant health effects, though scant prior epidemiologic research has examined the association between air pollutants and catecholamines. The objective of this study was to examine the association of long-term air pollutants with three urinary catecholamines: dopamine (DA), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE). As a secondary aim, researchers also examined the association between short-term (or acute) exposure to fine particulate matter (particulate matter with a particular aerodynamic diameter) and those catecholamines.

 

Socioeconomic and environmental risk factors for pediatric asthma in an American Indian community

Academic Pediatrics, Thursday, May 16, 2019

American Indian (AI)/Alaska Native (AN) children have increased asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white children. Our study sought to examine environmental and socioeconomic factors of asthma among children in an AI community.