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Prevalence of hepatitis B virus exposure in the Veterans' Health Administration and association with military-related risk factors

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Monday, August 5, 2019

Military veterans were reported to have higher odds of hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure after adjustment for demographic factors, family income, and birthplace. It is unclear whether military-related exposures are associated with risk of HBV exposure in veterans.

A short-term religious "fast" from animal products has a minimal impact on cardiometabolic health biomarkers irrespective of concurrent shifts in distinct plant-based food groups

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Monday, August 5, 2019

Plant-based diets may help improve measures of body fat, blood cholesterol, glucose metabolism, and inflammation. However, limited evidence suggests that the health effects of reducing animal products may depend on the quality of plant-based food consumed as caloric replacements. This study examines how temporarily restricting consumption of meat, dairy, and egg (MDE) products for religious purposes influences cardiometabolic health biomarkers and whether any effects of MDE restriction on biomarkers are modified by concurrent shifts in calories, fish, and distinct plant-based foods.

Differences in magnitude and rates of change in BMI distributions by socioeconomic and geographic factors in Mexico, Colombia, and Peru, 2005-2010

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Monday, August 5, 2019

Previous studies about obesity and its associated factors in low- and middle-income nations have been based mostly on women of reproductive age. Furthermore, disproportionally changing BMI distributions have been a challenge for its appropriate modeling. To this avail, the researchers assessed the magnitude and rate of change in BMI distribution by socioeconomic and geographic factors in both sexes in Latin American countries, modeling the shape of BMI distributions.

Psychosocial factors of diet and physical activity among rural, Hispanic children: findings from a multilevel health intervention study

Journal of Racial & Ethnic Health Disparities, Monday, August 5, 2019

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, family role modeling, and perceptions of the environment, on diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in Hispanic children living in rural Washington State.

Air pollution, particulate matter composition and methylation-based biologic age

Environment International, Saturday, August 3, 2019

Epigenetic age, as defined by DNA methylation, may be influenced by air pollution exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM), PM components and accelerated epigenetic age.

Early career investigators and precision public health

The Lancet, Saturday, August 3, 2019

The priority schema for strategies that will be most consequential for improving the public's health is in hot debate. Vocal sceptics of precision public health caution against precision-based approaches, suggesting that focusing on these advances is not worth the effort and could overshadow the true mission of public health.

A genome-wide association study identifies genetic loci associated with specific lobar brain volumes

Communications Biology, Friday, August 2, 2019

Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. The researchers performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in more than sixteen-thousand individuals. 

A four-gene transcript score to predict metastatic-lethal progression in men treated for localized prostate cancer: development and validation studies

The Prostate, Friday, August 2, 2019

Molecular studies have tried to address the unmet need for prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer. Some gene expression tests improve upon clinical factors for prediction of outcomes, but additional tools for accurate prediction of tumor aggressiveness are needed. Based on a previously published panel of 23 gene transcripts that distinguished patients with metastatic progression, the researchers constructed a prediction model using independent training and testing datasets.

Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-infected pregnant African women and implications for mother-to-child transmission of HIV

AIDS, Friday, August 2, 2019

Many sexually transmitted infections increase risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but the effect of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is unknown. The researchers hypothesized that MG infection would be common among HIV-infected pregnant women and could be associated with in utero and intrapartum MTCT.

Risk of HIV-1 acquisition among South African women using a variety of contraceptive methods in a prospective study

AIDS, Thursday, August 1, 2019

Observational studies have associated use of intramuscular injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM) with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, but limited data are available to assess HIV-1 risk for alternate contraceptive methods. Within a randomized trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention, the researchers assessed HIV-1 incidence by contraceptive method.