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Associations of diet quality and blood serum lipoprotein levels in a population at high risk for diabetes: the Strong Heart Family Study

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Thursday, December 5, 2019

This study assessed associations of diet quality (evaluated using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)), and the interaction of diet quality with diabetes, on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (apoA1), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) among American Indians (AIs).

Screening colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy for reduction of colorectal cancer incidence: A case-control study

PLoS One, Thursday, December 5, 2019

Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are both recommended colorectal cancer screening options, but their relative effectiveness needs clarification. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy for reduction of colorectal cancer incidence.

Statin-induced LDL cholesterol response and type 2 diabetes: a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization study

The Pharmacogenomics Journal, Thursday, December 5, 2019

It remains unclear whether the increased risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) seen in statin users is due to low LDL-C concentrations, or due to the statin-induced proportional change in LDL-C. In addition, genetic instruments have not been proposed before to examine whether liability to T2D might cause greater proportional statin-induced LDL-C lowering.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early continuation among pregnant and post-partum women within maternal and child health clinics in Kenya: results from an implementation programme

The Lancet HIV, Thursday, December 5, 2019

Pregnant women in settings with high HIV prevalence are at increased risk of HIV acquisition and subsequent vertical transmission. The researchers implemented and evaluated a novel programme to provide pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in maternal and child health clinics in Kenya.

It's absolutely relative: the effect of age on the BMI-mortality relationship in postmenopausal women

Obesity, Wednesday, December 4, 2019

The use of relative and absolute effect estimates has important implications for the interpretation of study findings. Likewise, examining additive and multiplicative interaction can lead to differing conclusions about the joint effects of two exposure variables. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between BMI and mortality on the relative and absolute scales and investigate interaction between BMI and age.

Genetic variant associated with survival of patients with stage II-III colon cancer

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Many genetic variants have been associated with colorectal cancer risk, although few have been associated with survival times of patients. Identification of genetic variants associated with survival times might improve our understanding of disease progression and aid in outcome prediction. The researchers performed a genome-wide association study to identify variants associated with colon cancer survival time.

Early management of sepsis in medical patients in rural Thailand: a single-center prospective observational study

Journal of Intensive Care, Monday, December 2, 2019

The burden of sepsis is highest in low- and middle-income countries, though the management of sepsis in these settings is poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the early management of sepsis in Thailand.

Association of infection with chronic hepatitis C virus and myocardial infarction in people living with HIV in the United States

American Journal of Epidemiology, Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). The researchers examined the association between HCV and myocardial infarction in the Centers for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems, a multi-center clinical cohort of PLWH.

APOE is a correlate of phenotypic heterogeneity in Alzheimer disease in a national cohort

Neurology, Friday, November 8, 2019

The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of APOE ε4 genotype carriers in aphasic vs. amnestic variants of Alzheimer disease.

No evidence of sexual risk compensation following PrEP initiation among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couple in Kenya and Uganda

AIDS and Behavior, Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Recent studies among men who have sex with men suggest that sexual behaviors associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections increase following initiation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. The researchers used longitudinal data from HIV-uninfected participants enrolled in an open-label study of PrEP delivered to Ugandan and Kenyan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples.