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Increased risk of female HIV-1 acquisition throughout pregnancy and postpartum: A prospective per-coital act analysis among women with HIV-1 infected partners

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Thursday, March 8, 2018

This study found the HIV-1 acquisition probability per condomless sex act steadily increased through pregnancy and was highest during the postpartum period, suggesting that biological changes during pregnancy and postpartum increase female HIV-1 susceptibility.

Risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in adults using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: Population-based cohort study

Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety, Wednesday, March 7, 2018

The objective of the study was to determine the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors.

Association of pre-pregnancy BMI and postpartum weight retention before second pregnancy, Washington State, 2003-2013

Maternal and Child Health Journal, Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Maternal overweight and obesity is one of the most common high-risk obstetric conditions associated with adverse birth outcomes. Smaller studies have suggested that pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with postpartum weight retention. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI status and maternal weight retention.

Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

The Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. To study this, the researchers conducted a two-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. 

Genetic mechanisms of immune evasion in colorectal cancer

Cancer Discovery, Tuesday, March 6, 2018

To understand the genetic drivers of immune recognition and evasion in colorectal cancer (CRC), the researchers analyzed 1,211 CRC primary tumor samples, including 179 classified as microsatellite instability-high.

From payday loans to pawnshops: Fringe banking, the unbanked, and health

Health Affairs, Monday, March 5, 2018

The fringe banking industry, including payday lenders and check cashers, was nearly nonexistent three decades ago. Today it generates tens of billions of dollars in annual revenue. The industry's growth accelerated in the 1980s with financial deregulation and the working class's declining resources. With Current Population Survey data, we used propensity score matching to investigate the relationship between fringe loan use, unbanked status, and self-rated health, hypothesizing that the material and stress effects of exposure to these financial services would be harmful to health. 

Proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of fractures among an older adult cohort

Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety, Wednesday, February 28, 2018

The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is associated with an increased fracture risk, as some prior studies have suggested.

Maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, 1992-2014: a population-based retrospective cohort study

Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Saturday, February 24, 2018

Women in veterinary occupations are routinely exposed to potential reproductive hazards, yet research into their birth outcomes is limited. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of the association between maternal veterinary occupation and adverse birth outcomes.

Associations between social capital and depression: A study of adult twins.

Health & Place, Thursday, February 22, 2018

Social capital is associated with depression independently of individual-level risk factors. We used a sample of 1586 same-sex twin pairs to test the association between seven measures of social capital and two related measures of neighborhood characteristics with depressive symptoms accounting for uncontrolled selection factors (i.e., genetics and shared environment).

Hospital and clinical care costs associated with atrial fibrillation for Medicare beneficiaries in the Cardiovascular Health Study and the Framingham Heart Study.

SAGE Open Medicine, Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Atrial fibrillation is increasingly prevalent as the US population ages and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Care for patients with atrial fibrillation can be costly, US health care costs are comparatively high, and there are few cost estimates available that incorporate detailed measurement of comorbidities and their effects on costs.