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Spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio is a predictor of stroke

Stroke, Friday, February 1, 2019

Dietary sodium reduction with concurrent increase in potassium intake is a current public health priority to reduce risk of cardiovascular events. This study explored associations between the spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio and cardiovascular events in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) longitudinal cohort.

Polygenic hazard score, amyloid deposition and Alzheimer's neurodegeneration

Brain, Friday, February 1, 2019

Mounting evidence indicates that the polygenic basis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease can be harnessed to identify individuals at greatest risk for cognitive decline. We have previously developed and validated a polygenic hazard score comprising of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms for predicting Alzheimer's disease dementia age of onset. In this study, we examined whether polygenic hazard scores are associated with: (i) regional tracer uptake using amyloid PET; (ii) regional volume loss using longitudinal MRI; (iii) post-mortem regional amyloid-β protein and tau associated neurofibrillary tangles; and (iv) four common non-Alzheimer's pathologies.

Surgery's role in addressing population health needs

The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, Friday, February 1, 2019

There is a large and unacceptable burden of death and disability from conditions that are treatable by surgery. Several global efforts to address this burden have included the World Health Assembly resolution (WHA68.15) on emergency and essential surgical care, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, and the Disease Control Priorities project.

Association studies of up to 1.2 million individuals yield new insights into the genetic etiology of tobacco and alcohol use

Nature Genetics, Friday, February 1, 2019

Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of mortality that influence risk for many complex diseases and disorders. They are heritable and etiologically related behaviors that have been resistant to gene discovery efforts. In sample sizes up to 1.2 million individuals, we discovered 566 genetic variants in 406 loci associated with multiple stages of tobacco use (initiation, cessation, and heaviness) as well as alcohol use, with 150 loci evidencing pleiotropic association.

Association between vaginal washing and detection of Lactobacillus by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis

Sexually Transmitted Infections, Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable Lactobacillus and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual Lactobacillus species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of Lactobacillus spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Case-control studies of the efficacy of screening tests that seek to prevent cancer incidence: results of an approach that utilizes administrative claims data that do not provide information regarding test indication

American Journal of Epidemiology, Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Case-control studies evaluating a screening test's efficacy in reducing cancer mortality require accurate classification of test indication to obtain a valid result. However, for analogous studies of cancer incidence, determination of test indication is not as critical because, to define exposure, we need consider only tests that can identify precursor lesions whose treatment might prevent cancer, not tests leading to cancer diagnosis. This study utilizes US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, which do not include information about colonoscopy indication, to evaluate the efficacy of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence.

Multi-Ancestry genome-wide association study of lipid levels incorporating gene-alcohol interactions

American Journal of Epidemiology, Tuesday, January 29, 2019

An individual's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination of children in Senegal during a year of vaccine mismatch: a cluster-randomized trial

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Monday, January 28, 2019

Population effects of influenza vaccination of children have not been extensively studied, especially in tropical developing countries. In rural Senegal, we assessed the total (primary objective) and indirect effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent (IIV3).

Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers

Nature Communications, Friday, January 25, 2019

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases.

Association between vaginal washing and vaginal bacterial concentrations

PLoS One, Thursday, January 24, 2019

Vaginal washing is a common practice associated with adverse outcomes including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. Prior studies have not examined the associations between vaginal washing and individual vaginal bacteria, or whether these associations are independent of the effect of vaginal washing on BV. The purpose of this study was to characterize the association between vaginal washing and the presence and concentrations of vaginal bacteria associated with optimal and sub-optimal vaginal states.