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PrEP discontinuation and prevention-effective adherence: experiences of PrEP users in Ugandan HIV serodiscordant couples

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Friday, November 1, 2019

Optimal adherence to oral pre-exposure prohpylaxis for HIV prevention involves aligning consistent PrEP use with periods of risk to achieve prevention-effective adherence. For stable, serodiscordant couples, antiretroviral therapy adherence by the HIV-positive partner markedly decreases HIV transmission risk, potentially obviating the need for continued PrEP use; yet little is known about actual lived experiences of discontinuing PrEP.

Effect of cryotherapy vs loop electrosurgical excision procedure on cervical disease recurrence among women with HIV and high-grade cervical lesions in Kenya: a randomized clinical trial

JAMA, Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The World Health Organization recommends cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure for histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher regardless of HIV status. Cryotherapy is more feasible in resource-limited settings but may be less effective for women living with HIV.

Disseminating evidence-based interventions in small, low-wage worksites: a randomized controlled trial in King County, Washington (2014-2017)

American Journal of Public Health, Thursday, October 17, 2019

The objectives of this study were to determine whether participating in HealthLinks and adding wellness committees to HealthLinks increases worksites' evidence-based intervention implementation.

Reported beta lactam and other antibiotic allergies in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Thursday, October 17, 2019

Patients with reported beta lactam antibiotic allergies (BLA) are more likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics and experience adverse outcomes. Data describing antibiotic allergies among solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are limited.

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination: phase 1 study to explore stage-specific immunity to plasmodium falciparum in U.S. adults

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Thursday, October 17, 2019

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against homologous P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs such as primaquine act against liver-stage parasites. Here, the researchers evaluate CVac regimens using chloroquine or primaquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection.

Topical microbicides in HIV prevention: state of the promise

Annual Review of Medicine, Tuesday, October 15, 2019

HIV topical microbicides are products with anti-HIV activity, generally incorporating a direct-acting antiretroviral agent, that when applied to the vagina or rectum have the potential to prevent sexual acquisition of HIV in women and men. Topical microbicides may meet the prevention needs of individuals and grops for whom oral daily forms of pre-exposure prophylaxis have not been acceptable.

Dietary determinants of inorganic arsenic exposure in the Strong Heart Family Study

Environmental Research, Monday, October 14, 2019

Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the US occurs mainly through drinking water and diet. Although American Indian (AI) populations have elevated urinary arsenic concentrations compared to the general US population, dietary sources of arsenic exposure in AI populations are not well characterized.

Assessment of interactions between 205 breast cancer susceptibility loci and 13 established risk factors in relation to breast cancer risk, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

International Journal of Epidemiology, Saturday, October 12, 2019

Previous gene-environment interaction studies of breast cancer risk have provided sparse evidence of interactions. Using the largest available dataset to date, the researchers performed a comprehensive assessment of potential effect modification of 205 common susceptibility variants by 13 established breast cancer risk factors, including replication of previously reported interactions.

Development and validation of the first point-of-care assay to objectively monitor adherence to HIV treatment and prevention in real-time in routine settings

AIDS, Friday, October 11, 2019

The researchers developed a specific and sensitive antibody against tenofovir, the backbone of treatment and prevention, but conversion to a lateral flow assay (LFA), analogous to a urine pregnancy test, is required for point-of-care testing. They describe the development of the first LFA to measure antiretroviral adherence in real-time.

A novel density-volume calcium score by non-contrast CT predicts coronary plaque burden on coronary CT angiography: Results from the MACS

Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Thursday, October 10, 2019

The purpose of this study is to determine if a new score calculated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) density and volume is associated with total coronary artery plaque burden and composition on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) compared to the Agatston score (AS).