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An academic-practice partnership at the University of Washington School of Public Health: The Student Epidemic Action Leaders (SEAL) team

Public Health Reports, Tuesday, October 9, 2018

In 2015, the University of Washington School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology established the Student Epidemic Action Leaders (SEAL) team to provide public health students with experience in field epidemiology in state and local public health communicable disease divisions. The University of Washington Department of Epidemiology developed the SEAL team in collaboration with the Washington State Department of Health to offer public health graduate students opportunities to contribute to the real-time needs of public health agencies during a communicable disease event and/or preparedness event.

Implications of epigenetic drift in colorectal neoplasia

Cancer Research, Friday, October 5, 2018

Many normal tissues undergo age-related drift in DNA methylation, providing a quantitative measure of tissue age. Here we identify and validate 781 CpG-islands (CGI) that undergo significant methylomic drift in 232 normal colorectal tissues and show that these CGI continue to drift in neoplasia while retaining significant correlations across samples.

Quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-1-infected early adolescent girls and boys in Kenya: Month 7 and 12 post vaccine immunogenicity and correlation with immune status

Vaccine, Friday, October 5, 2018

In sub-Saharan Africa, a generation of HIV-1-infected children is approaching the age of sexual debut and becoming at risk for HPV infection and its sequelae. We assessed safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-1-infected adolescents.

Increase in HSV shedding at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and decrease in shedding over time on ART in HIV and HSV-2 infected persons

AIDS, Thursday, October 4, 2018

HIV-infected persons with chronic herpesvirus infections may experience paradoxical worsening after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the impact of longer term ART is unclear. We evaluated the relationships between genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding and ART initiation and time on therapy in HIV and HSV-2 infected persons.

Long duration of asymptomatic Mycoplasma genitalium infection after syndromic treatment for nongonococcal urethritis

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Between August 8, 2014-April 15, 2016 a case series of 13 heterosexual men ≥16 years with MG was identified within a cohort study of men with and without NGU attending an urban Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic. Men had monthly visits for 6-7 months. NGU was defined as ≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high power field on urethral Gram stain plus either visible urethral discharge or urethral symptoms. Men with NGU received one gram azithromycin. Men with persistent NGU received moxifloxacin 400mg x 14 days. First-void urine was retrospectively tested for MG using TMA. Resistance-associated mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing. Organism load was determined by quantitative PCR.

Financial incentives to increase uptake of pediatric HIV testing (FIT): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Kenya

BMJ Open, Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Index case testing (ICT) to identify HIV-infected children is efficient but has suboptimal uptake. Financial incentives (FI) have overcome financial barriers in other populations by offsetting direct and indirect costs. A pilot study found FI to be feasible for motivating paediatric ICT among HIV-infected female caregivers. This randomised trial will determine the effectiveness of FI to increase uptake of paediatric ICT.

Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Assessment: Current Tools, Techniques, and Technologies for Use in Adult Populations

American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Monday, October 1, 2018

Accurate assessment of dietary intake and physical activity is a vital component for quality research in public health, nutrition, and exercise science. However, accurate and consistent methodology for the assessment of these components remains a major challenge. Classic methods use self-report to capture dietary intake and physical activity in healthy adult populations. However, these tools, such as questionnaires or food and activity records and recalls, have been shown to underestimate energy intake and expenditure as compared with direct measures like doubly labeled water. This paper summarizes recent technological advancements, such as remote sensing devices, digital photography, and multisensor devices, which have the potential to improve the assessment of dietary intake and physical activity in free-living adults.

Defining stopping criteria for ending randomized clinical trials that investigate the interruption of transmission of soil-transmitted helminths employing mass drug administration

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Monday, October 1, 2018

In this study, the researchers investigate if criteria to determine whether transmission interruption is unlikely can be defined at earlier timepoints. A stochastic, individual-based simulation model is employed to simulate core aspects of the DeWorm3 community-based cluster-randomized trial. This trial compares a control arm (annual treatment of children alone with MDA) with an intervention arm (community-wide biannual treatment with MDA). Simulations were run for each scenario for both Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm (Necator americanus). A range of threshold prevalences measured at six months after the last round of MDA and the impact of MDA coverage levels were evaluated to see if the likelihood of bounce-back or elimination could reliably be assessed at that point, rather than after two years of subsequent surveillance.

Association of endogenous sex hormone levels with coronary artery calcium progression among post-menopausal women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Monday, October 1, 2018

Sex differences in the incidence and manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) suggest the involvement of sex hormones in disease pathogenesis. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and its progression, measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography, are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and predict CVD, even among low-risk women. We hypothesized that sex hormone levels were associated with CAC progression among women in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Strength of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome following Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection varies with case definition

International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Monday, October 1, 2018

The veracity of the association between antibiotic use and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been a topic of debate. The researchers postulated that criteria used to define HUS affect this association.