Risk of HIV-1 acquisition among South African women using a variety of contraceptive methods in a prospective study
Observational studies have associated use of intramuscular injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM) with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition, but limited data are available to assess HIV-1 risk for alternate contraceptive methods. Within a randomized trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention, the researchers assessed HIV-1 incidence by contraceptive method.
Assessing clinical heterogeneity in sepsis through treatment patterns and machine learning
The researchers' objective was to use unsupervised topic modeling to evaluate heterogeneity in sepsis treatment patterns contained within granular data of electronic health records.
Confurine tenofovir concentrations correlate with plasma and relates to TDF adherence: a randomized directly-observed pharmacokinetic trial (TARGET study)
Direct measurement of tenofovir (TFV) in urine could be an objective measure to monitor adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or TFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). The researchers describe urine TFV concentrations in adults with controlled levels of adherence to advance development and enable interpretation of point-of-care urine assays.
Interaction of nutritional status and diabetes on active and latent tuberculosis: a cross-sectional analysis
Malnutrition and diabetes are risk factors for active tuberculosis (TB), possible risk factors for latent TB infection (LTBI), and may interact to alter their effect on these outcomes. Studies to date have not investigated this interaction.
Field-based evaluation of malaria outbreak detection and response in Mudzi and Goromonzi districts, Zimbabwe - 2017
National-level evaluations may fail to identify capacity improvements for detecting and responding to outbreaks which begin and are first detected at the local level. In response to this issue, the researchers conducted a field-based assessment of the malaria outbreak surveillance system in Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe.
Antidepressant continuation in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes
Previous studies observed modestly higher risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) associated with antidepressant use in pregnancy, potentially due to confounding by indication. The researchers assessed the association of antidepressant continuation in pregnancy with GDM, as well as blood glucose levels, after accounting for confounding.
Plasma ceramides and sphingomyelines in relation to heart failure risk
Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. These activities may be influenced by the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide (Cer). However, the associations of different circulating Cer species, and their sphingomyelin (SM) precursors, with heart failure have received limited attention.
A pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic evaluation of contraceptive implants and antiretroviral therapy among women in Kenya and Uganda
The researchers' objective was to evaluate pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of contraceptive implant progestin concentrations in HIV-positive women initiating efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Blood amyloid levels and risk of dementia in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS): A longitudinal analysis
Both high or low plasma amyloid levels have been associated with risk of dementia in nondemented subjects. The researchers examined baseline plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in relationship to incident dementia during a period of 8.5 years in 2840 subjects of over 75 years of age.
Perceptions of the possible health and economic impacts of Seattle's sugary beverage tax
Taxes on sugary beverages are an emerging strategy to improve health by reducing consumption and raising revenues to support community wellbeing. However, taxes may have unintended consequences, and perceptions of these consequences may affect attitudes towards this policy.