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Effects of colorectal cancer risk factors on the association between aspirin and colorectal cancer

Anticancer Research, Monday, September 16, 2019

In this study, the researchers investigated the effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer risk among subgroups of women with and without risk factors for colorectal cancer.

Performance of family planning clinics in conducting recommended HIV counseling and testing in Mombasa County, Kenya: a cross-sectional study

BMC Health Services Research, Saturday, September 14, 2019

A high proportion of African women utilize family planning services. Accordingly, incorporating HIV testing into FP services may strategically target the first WHO 90-90-90 goal of 90% of people living with HIV knowing their status. The objective of this analysis was to determine the proportion of new FP clients counseled and tested for HIV, as well as correlates of HIV testing, in a random sample of 58 FP clinics in Mombasa County, Kenya.

Terminal effector CD8 t cells defined by IKZF2*IL-7R transcriptional signature express FcγRIIIA, expand in HIV infection, and mediate potent HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Journal of Immunology, Friday, September 13, 2019

HIV-1 infection expands large populations of late-stage differentiated CD8 T cells that may persist long after viral escape from TCR recognition. In this study, the researchers investigated whether such CD8 T cell populations can perform unconventional innate-like antiviral effector functions.

Genome-wide association meta-analyses and fine-mapping elucidate pathways influencing albuminuria

Nature Communications, Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Increased levels of the uninary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, the researchers conduct trans-ethnic and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses.

Perinatal outcomes following maternal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use during pregnancy: results from a large PrEP implementation program in Kenya

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, September 9, 2019

The World Health Organization, while recommending pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative pregnant women and postpartum women in HIV high-burdan settings, advocates for continued safety evaluation of PrEP in this population.

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity targeting CD4-inducible epitopes predicts mortality in HIV-infected infants

EBioMedicine, Friday, September 6, 2019

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been associated with improved infant outcome in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Epitopes of these ADCC-mediating antibodies remain unidentified. CD4-inducible (CD4i) epitopes on gp120 are common ADCC targets in natural infection and vaccination. The researchers tested whether CD4i epitope-specific ADCC mediated by maternal antibodies or passively-acquired antibodies in infants is associated with reduced mother-to-child transmission and improved infant survival.

Molecular testing for Mycoplasma genitalium in the United States; results from the AMES prospective multi-center clinical study

Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Wednesday, September 4, 2019

A prospective multicenter clinical study involving subjects from 21 sites across the United States was conducted to validate the performance of a new in vitro diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium.

Integrating preexposure prophylaxis delivery in routine family planning clinics: a feasibility programmatic evaluation in Kenya

PLoS Medicine, Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Young women account for a disproportionate fraction of new HIV infections in Africa and are a priority population for HIV prevention, including implementation of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The overarching goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating PrEP delivery within routine family planning clinics to serve as a platform to efficiently reach at-risk adolescent girls and young women for PrEP in HIV high-burden settings.

Sex differences in the genetic predictors of Alzheimer's pathology

Brain: A Journal of Neurology, Sunday, September 1, 2019

Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. 

Sugars and sweeteners: science, innovations, and consumer guidance for Asia

Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Sunday, September 1, 2019

Rising obesity in Southeast Asia, one consequence of economic growth, has been linked to a rising consumption of energy from added sugars. This symposium, organized by ILSI Southeast Asia, explored regional issues related to dietary sugars and health and identified ways in which these issues could be addressed by regional regulatory agencies, food producers, and the consumer.