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Intimate partner homicide of adolescents

JAMA Pediatrics, Monday, April 15, 2019

Intimate partner violence during adolescence is widespread, and consequences can be severe. Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is the most extreme form of intimate partner violence, but literature on IPH has almost exclusively focused on adults. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescent homicides that is perpetrated by intimate partners and to describe the victim, perpetrator, and incident characteristics of these IPHs.

Biomarkers of dietary omega-6 fatty acids and incident cardiovascular disease and mortality: an individual-level pooled analysis of 30 cohort studies

Circulation, Thursday, April 11, 2019

Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, this study evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.

Obstetrical and infant outcomes among women with neoplasms during pregnancy

Cancer Causes & Control, Thursday, April 11, 2019

One in 1,000 pregnancies is complicated by malignancies. Prevalence is greater for benign neoplasms. Adverse outcomes among women with malignancies have been reported. Less is known of postpartum outcomes for infants, or outcomes among women with benign neoplasms. Researchers conducted a population-based cohort study using Washington State-linked vital-hospital discharge records in order to investigate these outcomes among women with neoplasms.

gyrA and parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya

BMC Microbiology, Monday, April 8, 2019

Phenotypic fluoroquinolone resistance was first reported in Western Kenya in 2009 and later in Coastal Kenya and Nairobi. Until recently gonococcal fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in Kenya had not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to analyze mutations in both gyrA and parC responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolated from heterosexual individuals from different locations in Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Developing an epidemiologic study to investigate risk factors for colorectal cancer among Alaska Native people

Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, Friday, April 5, 2019

Alaska Native (AN) people have among the highest rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) recorded globally. Preventing CRC is an important health priority of AN tribal health leaders and communities. Lifestyle and genetic risk and protective factors for CRC among AN people remain understudied. This paper works to establish a tribally led, community-based, comprehensive investigation of lifestyle and genetic risk and protective factors for CRC among AN people. This description is intended to provide guidance to other researchers working to establish community-based studies of cancer risk, particularly among tribal communities.

Effect of Human Papillomavirus vaccine to interrupt recurrence of vulvar and anal neoplasia (VIVA): a trial protocol

JAMA Network Open, Friday, April 5, 2019

Human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV type 16, causes most anal and vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), which are precursors to cancer. After initial treatment of HSIL, more than 30% of patients will have disease recurrence, with even higher recurrence among HIV-positive individuals and men who have sex with men. Recurrences can be debilitating and lead to significant morbidity and medical expense. The objective of this study was to test whether the licensed prophylactic HPV vaccine (Gardasil-9) can reduce the risk of HSIL recurrence by 50% in previously unvaccinated individuals recently treated for anal or vulvar HSIL.

Reasons for differences in the incidence of venous thromboembolism in black versus white americans

American Journal of Medicine, Wednesday, April 3, 2019

Venous thromboembolism incidence rates are 30-100% higher in American blacks than whites. This study examined (a) the degree to which differences in the frequencies of socioeconomic, lifestyle, and medical risk factors, and genetic variants explain the excess venous thromboembolism risk in blacks and (b) whether some risk factors are more strongly associated with venous thromboembolism in blacks compared with whites.

NT-pro BNP as a mediator of the racial difference in incident atrial fibrillation and heart failure

Journal of the American Heart Association, Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Blacks harbor more cardiovascular risk factors than whites, but experience less atrial fibrillation (AF). Conversely, whites may have a lower risk of heart failure (CHF). N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) levels are higher in whites, predict incident AF, and have diuretic effects in the setting of increased ventricular diastolic pressures, potentially providing a unifying explanation for these racial differences.

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids

Nature Genetics, Monday, April 1, 2019

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. To study this, investigators conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.

Implementation of a comprehensive safer conception intervention for HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya: uptake, use and effectiveness

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Monday, April 1, 2019

Safer conception strategies minimize HIV risk during condomless sex to become pregnant. Gaps remain in understanding the acceptability, feasibility and choices HIV-serodiscordant couples make when multiple safer conception options are available. Researchers conducted a pilot study of a comprehensive safer conception package for HIV-serodiscordant couples with immediate fertility desires in Kenya.