Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer
GWAS have identified 107 SNPs that are independently associated with breast cancer risk. We aimed to discover additional susceptibility variants for ER-negative breast cancer by performing a GWAS in women of European origin.
Loaded Handgun Carrying Among US Adults, 2015
To determine the frequency of loaded handgun carrying among US adult handgun owners, characterize those who carry, and examine concealed carrying by state concealed carry laws. The study estimates that 9 million US adult handgun owners carry loaded handguns monthly, 3 million do so every day, and most report protection as the main carrying reason.
Use of firearms in terrorist attacks differences between the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand
Although firearms are used in only a small proportion of terrorist attacks, these highly publicized events shed light on access to weapons and mass shootings. The sociopolitical and cultural context surrounding firearms, including the proportion of individuals owning guns, varies between countries. The United States has a higher rate of firearms deaths than other high-income countries. Robert Tessler and his team compared the proportion of terrorist attacks committed with firearms in the United States with the proportion in other high-income countries. They also compared the lethality of attacks with firearms to those by other means.
Brief Report: Dapivirine vaginal ring use does not diminish the effectiveness of hormonal contraception
This study evaluated the potential for a clinically relevant drug–drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use.
Up For A Challenge (U4C): Stimulating innovation in breast cancer genetic epidemiology
Breast cancer remains a major public health burden, with an estimated 252,710 new cases and 40,610 deaths among women in the United States in 2017. At present, close to 100 common genetic variants have been associated with breast cancer. However, these variants explain only a small proportion of the estimated genetic contribution to the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, in 2015, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched a challenge to inspire novel cross-disciplinary approaches to more fully decipher the genomic basis of breast cancer, called "Up For A Challenge (U4C)—Stimulating Innovation in Breast Cancer Genetic Epidemiology.” The goal of U4C was to promote the development and/or implementation of innovative approaches to identify novel risk pathways—including new genes or combinations of genes, genetic variants, or sets of genomic features—involved in breast cancer susceptibility in order to generate new biological hypotheses.
A mobile breast cancer survivorship care app: Pilot study
Cancer survivors living in rural areas experience unique challenges due to additional burdens, such as travel and limited access to specialists. Rural survivors of breast cancer have reported poorer outcomes, poorer mental health and physical functioning, and lower-than-average quality of life compared to urban survivors. This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of developing a mobile health survivorship care app to facilitate care coordination; support medical, psychosocial, and practical needs; and improve survivors' long-term health outcomes.
Mixed neuropathologies and associations with domain-specific cognitive decline
This study tested whether decline in specific cognitive domains associated with Alzheimer disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) is modified by co-occurrence of other neuropathologies such as Lewy body disease (LBD) or vascular brain injury (VBI).
Natural history of HPV infection across the lifespan: Role of viral latency
Large-scale epidemiologic studies have been invaluable for elaboration of the causal relationship between persistent detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of invasive cervical cancer. However, these studies provide limited data to adequately inform models of the individual-level natural history of HPV infection over the course of a lifetime, and particularly ignore the biological distinction between HPV-negative tests and lack of infection (i.e., the possibility of latent, undetectable HPV infection).
Diabetes treatments and risks of adverse breast cancer outcomes among early stage breast cancer patients: A SEER-Medicare analysis
The widely prescribed diabetes medicine metformin has been reported to lower the risk of incident breast cancer, but it is unclear if it affects malignant progression after diagnosis. This study conducted a retrospective cohort study using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database.
Risk of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal habitual snoring during early pregnancy
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes among both men and non-pregnant women. This study examined the association of habitual snoring during early pregnancy with risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).