Women's beliefs about what causes obesity: variation by race/ethnicity and acculturation in a Washington State sample
Individuals' beliefs about the causes of multifactorial health conditions (causal attributions) shape how they conceptualize and respond to health threats and are therefore important for health promotion. Studies of racial/ethnic and cultural variation in obesity causal beliefs, however, are scarce.
Modeling HIV disease progression and transmission at population-level: The potential impact of modifying disease progression in HIV treatment programs
Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy.
Body mass index and breast cancer survival: a Mendelian randomization analysis
There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer.
Mortality associated with metformin versus sulfonylurea initiation: A cohort study of veterans with diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
For patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD), high-quality evidence about the relative benefits and harms of oral glucose-lowering drugs is limited.
Maternal gestational weight gain and DNA methylation in young women: application of life course mediation methods
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and prepregnancy BMI on programming offspring DNA methylation.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative persons with partners living with HIV: uptake, use, and effectiveness in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa
This study evaluates delivery of PrEP for HIV-negative partners within heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa.
Treated hypothyroidism is associated with cerebrovascular disease but not Alzheimer's disease pathology in older adults
Thyroid hormone disease is common among older adults and is associated with cognitive impairment. However, pathologic correlates are not well understood. We studied pathologic and clinical factors associated with hypothyroidism, the most common manifestation of thyroid disease, in research subjects seen annually for clinical evaluations at U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers.
Rationale and design of the HOME trial: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of home-based human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling for increasing cervical cancer screening uptake and effectiveness in a U.S. healthcare system
Women who delay or do not attend Papanicolaou (Pap) screening are at increased risk for cervical cancer. Trials in countries with organized screening programs have demonstrated that mailing high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling kits to under-screened women increases participation, but U.S. data are lacking. The trial was designed to evaluate whether a programmatic strategy incorporating hrHPV self-sampling is effective in promoting adherence to the complete screening process (including follow-up of abnormal screening results and treatment). The objective of this report is to describe the rationale and design of this pragmatic trial.
Firearm Injury After Gun Shows: Evidence to Gauge the Potential Impact of Regulatory Interventions
The recent mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, was a painful reminder that injuries and deaths resulting from access to guns continue to bedevil many parts of U.S. society, including communities; the health care industry; and the families of those injured, killed, or threatened by firearms. Although the problem created by more than 300 million guns in the United States will ultimately need a political solution, science and scientific publications have important roles in assessing and promoting awareness about interventions that may reduce the 36 000 fatal and 85 000 nonfatal firearm injuries each year.
Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci
Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here, we identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.