Breakfast in the United States: Food and Nutrient Intakes in Relation to Diet Quality in National Health and Examination Survey 2011⁻2014. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
The contribution of breakfast to diet quality (DQ) can inform future dietary guidelines. This study examined breakfast nutrition in relation to overall DQ, using dietary data from the first reported day of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011⁻2014 (n = 14,488). Relative DQ was assessed using the Nutrient Rich Foods Index (NRF9.3) and the USDA Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI 2015). The sample was stratified by NRF9.3 tertiles and by age and socioeconomic groups. Four out of 5 NHANES participants had breakfast on the day of the interview. Breakfast provided 19⁻22% of dietary energy depending on age. Breakfast intakes of complex carbohydrates and total sugars were proportionately higher and intakes of protein and fats were lower relative to breakfast energy intakes. Breakfast provided more that 20% of daily intakes of B vitamins, vitamins A and D, folate, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Eating breakfast was associated with higher NRF9.3 DQ scores.
Barriers and facilitators to treatment among patients with newly diagnosed hypertension in Nepal.
Hypertension is a significant and rising burden in Nepal. The disease remains undetected and inadequately managed. However, no studies have been conducted to understand the inhibiting and facilitating factors to hypertension treatment among newly diagnosed cases. This qualitative study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to treatment among patients with newly diagnosed hypertension aged ≥18 years in Dhulikhel, Nepal.
Cancer Risks for PMS2-Associated Lynch Syndrome
Purpose Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, the researchers' aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants.
Estimating ambient-origin PM2.5 exposure for epidemiology: observations, prediction, and validation using personal sampling in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
The researchers' aim to characterize the qualities of estimation approaches for individual exposure to ambient-origin fine particulate matter (PM2.5), for use in epidemiological studies.
How can we get Iraq- and Afghanistan-deployed US Veterans to participate in health-related research? Findings from a national focus group study
Research participant recruitment is often fraught with obstacles. Poor response rates can reduce statistical power, threaten both internal and external validity, and increase study costs and duration. Military personnel are socialized to a specific set of laws, norms, traditions, and values; their willingness to participate in research may differ from civilians. The aims of this study were to better understand the views of United States (US) Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/ Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) on research and motivators for participating in research to inform recruitment for a planned observational study of respiratory health in OEF/OIF Veterans.
Research strategy for health sciences: Facebook friend request is non-differentially accepted in a diverse, young adult population
Social media is being used for recruitment and the study of health-care choices and behavior, and could be particularly helpful to reach young adult populations outside of a 4 year college setting. The aim of this study was to report on overall success of recruiting young adults in diverse settings with respect to education and employment into a study using Facebook (FB). Young adults (n = 380, 50% male, 44% white) who had been involved in a longitudinal research project received a friend request from the research study group's profile. Acceptance rates of friend requests and sociodemographic and mental health factors associated with acceptance were evaluated. Approximately 67% of 318 participants who received a friend request accepted the request. Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics were similar between those who did and did not accept friend requests, suggesting non-differential recruitment through FB.
A comprehensive evaluation of the genetic architecture of sudden cardiac arrest
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) accounts for 10% of adult mortality in Western populations. The researchers' aim to identify potential loci associated with SCA and to identify risk factors causally associated with SCA.
Global Mortality From Firearms, 1990-2016
Understanding global variation in firearm mortality rates could guide prevention policies and interventions. Researchers aim to estimate mortality due to firearm injury deaths from 1990 to 2016 in 195 countries and territories.
Female genital mutilation and non-invasive cervical abnormalities and invasive cervical cancer in Senegal, West Africa: A retrospective study
Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice that affects a significant portion of women in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, areas of the Middle East, and some countries in Asia. While clinical and epidemiological studies have established a close association between inflammation and carcinogenesis, particularly in epithelial cancers, the relationship between FGM/C and cervical cancer is not well known. We performed a secondary analysis using combined data from six research studies conducted in and around Dakar, Senegal from 1994 to 2012. Study subjects included both asymptomatic women who presented to outpatient clinics but were screened for cervical cancer, and women with cancer symptoms who were referred for cervical cancer treatment.
Predictors of a successful external cephalic version: A population-based study of Washington state births
This study aimed to estimate the proportion of successful version procedures in the United States and to evaluate factors associated with version success.