Feasibility of using a leadless patch monitor in community cohort studies: The multiethnic study of atherosclerosis
Asymptomatic and undetected "silent" atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important public health problem because it is often detected only after a stroke 1 and its prevalence in the general population is not precisely known.
HIV partner services in Kenya: a cost and budget impact analysis study
The elicitation of contact information, notification and testing of sex partners of HIV infected patients (aPS), is an effective HIV testing strategy in low-income settings but may not necessarily be affordable. The researchers applied WHO guidelines and the International Society for Pharmaco-economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines to conduct cost and budget impact analyses, respectively, of aPS compared to current practice of HIV testing services (HTS) in Kisumu County, Kenya
Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits.
High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The researchers report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. They identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Their findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.
Serum Nitrogen and Carbon Stable Isotope Ratios Meet Biomarker Criteria for Fish and Animal Protein Intake in a Controlled Feeding Study of a Women's Health Initiative Cohort
Natural abundance stable isotope ratios are candidate biomarkers of dietary intake that have not been evaluated in a controlled feeding study in a US population. The researchers' goals were to evaluate dietary associations with serum carbon (CIR), nitrogen (NIR), and sulfur (SIR) isotope ratios in postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether statistical models of dietary intake that include multiple isotopes and participant characteristics meet criteria for biomarker evaluation.
Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 23
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, contributes to the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders in CKD and is an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. Central elements of FGF23 regulation remain incompletely understood; genetic variation may help explain interindividual differences.
Vaginal Ring Use in a Phase 3 Microbicide Trial: A Comparison of Objective Measures and Self-reports of Non-adherence in ASPIRE.
This analysis compares self-reports of product use with objective measures of non-adherence-quarterly plasma dapivirine levels and monthly residual dapivirine (DPV) levels in used rings-in MTN-020/ASPIRE, a phase 3 trial of a monthly DPV vaginal ring among women aged 18-45 years in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. For participants on active product (N = 1211) the researchers assessed self-reported monthly non-adherence, as measured by (1) whether the ring was ever out, and out for ≥ 12 h in the previous month and, (2) by a self-rating scale assessing ability to keep the vaginal ring inserted, and compared the self-reports to two biomarkers of non-use separately and as a composite measure. For this analysis, a plasma DPV value ≤ 95 pg/ml and residual ring ≥ 23.5 mg were used to classify non-adherence (i.e. the ring never being in the vagina the previous month).
Integration of PrEP Services Into Routine Antenatal and Postnatal care: Experiences from an Implementation Program in Western Kenya
Programmatic approaches for delivering PrEP to pregnant and postpartum women in settings with high HIV burden are undefined. The PrEP Implementation for Young Women and Adolescents (PrIYA) Program developed approaches for delivering PrEP in maternal child health (MCH) clinics.
Meta-analysis across Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium provides evidence for an association of serum vitamin D with pulmonary function
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA.
Temporal variability and stability of the fecal microbiome: the Multiethnic Cohort Study
Measurement reliability and biological stability need to be considered when developing sampling protocols for population-based fecal microbiome studies.
A typology of prescription drug monitoring programs: A latent transition analysis of the evolution of programs from 1999 to 2016
Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), defined as state-level databases used in the USA that collect prescribing information when controlled substances are dispensed, have varied substantially between states and over time. Little is known about the combinations of PDMP features that, collectively, may produce the greatest impact on prescribing and overdose. The researchers aimed to (1) identify the types of PDMP models that have developed from 1999 to 2016, (2) estimate whether states have transitioned across PDMP models over time, and (3) examine whether states have adopted different types of PDMP models in response to the burden of opioid overdose.