Diabetes treatments and risks of adverse breast cancer outcomes among early stage breast cancer patients: A SEER-Medicare analysis
The widely prescribed diabetes medicine metformin has been reported to lower the risk of incident breast cancer, but it is unclear if it affects malignant progression after diagnosis. This study conducted a retrospective cohort study using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database.
Natural history of HPV infection across the lifespan: Role of viral latency
Large-scale epidemiologic studies have been invaluable for elaboration of the causal relationship between persistent detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of invasive cervical cancer. However, these studies provide limited data to adequately inform models of the individual-level natural history of HPV infection over the course of a lifetime, and particularly ignore the biological distinction between HPV-negative tests and lack of infection (i.e., the possibility of latent, undetectable HPV infection).
Risk of glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus in relation to maternal habitual snoring during early pregnancy
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or habitual snoring is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes among both men and non-pregnant women. This study examined the association of habitual snoring during early pregnancy with risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Racial disparities in the transgenerational transmission of low birthweight risk
This study examined the association of maternal low birthweight (LBW) with infant LBW and infant LBW subgroups (i.e. moderate and very LBW), overall and among non-Hispanic (NH) white and NH black mothers.
Comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with primary age-related tauopathy
This study conducted a clinicopathologic study to characterize clinical and neuropathologic features associated with cognitive impairment in participants with no neuritic amyloid plaques (primary age-related tauopathy [PART] definite) and sparse neuritic plaques (amyloid sparse).
Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among U.S. Service Members
In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, researchers examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001–2012).
What motivates serodiscordant couples to prevent HIV transmission within their relationships: findings from a PrEP implementation study in Kenya
With the planned scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings, gaining an understanding of what motivates serodiscordant couples to prevent HIV is critical.
Fertility Intentions, Pregnancy, and Use of PrEP and ART for Safer Conception Among East African HIV Serodiscordant Couples
African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known.
The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County
Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. This study explores whether a higher minimum wage results in higher food prices.
Associations of 100% fruit juice versus whole fruit with hypertension and diabetes risk in postmenopausal women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative
The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of 100% fruit juice as compared to whole fruit is associated with increased risk of hypertension or diabetes.