Predictors of a successful external cephalic version: A population-based study of Washington state births
This study aimed to estimate the proportion of successful version procedures in the United States and to evaluate factors associated with version success.
HIV Viral Suppression Trends Over Time Among HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Care in the United States, 1997 to 2015: A Cohort Study
Because HIV viral suppression is essential for optimal outcomes and prevention efforts, understanding trends and predictors is imperative to inform public health policy. The objective is to evaluate viral suppression trends in people living with HIV (PLWH), including the relationship of associated factors, such as demographic characteristics and integrase strand transfer inhibitor (ISTI) use.
Sex Hormones and Change in N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Sex hormones (SH) are thought to influence sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD). N-Terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), a predictor of CVD, is higher in women than men, which may relate to SH. The objective is to evaluate whether SH [Total testosterone (T), bioavailable T, free T, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), SH binding globulin (SHBG)] are associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal NT-proBNP levels.
Utilization of injury care case studies: a systematic review of the World Health Organization's "Strengthening care for the injured: Success stories and lessons learned from around the world"
The researchers aimed to determine the degree to which these injury care case studies have been translated to practice and to identify opportunities for enhancement of the evidence-to-practice pathway for injury care case studies overall.
Changes in Sexual Behavior and STI Diagnoses Among MSM Initiating PrEP in a Clinic Setting
The researchers examined changes in sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among 183 men who have sex with men (MSM) initiating pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at an STD Clinic in Seattle, WA. Researchers used generalized estimating equations to measure changes in sexual behavior during PrEP use, and linked PrEP patient data with STI surveillance data to compare the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis in the periods prior to and during PrEP use.
Prior Arrest, Substance Use, Mental Disorder, and Intent-Specific Firearm Injury
Substance use, mental disorders, and arrest are markers of increased firearm injury risk. It is unclear how these markers vary by intent. Examining these interrelated factors together can clarify their associations with assault-related, self-inflicted, unintentional, and legal intervention firearm injuries, informing intent-specific interventions.
Influence of Smoking, Body Mass Index, and Other Factors on the Preventive Effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Colorectal Cancer Risk
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs' (NSAID) use has consistently been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer; however, studies showed inconsistent results on which cohort of individuals may benefit most. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to systematically test for the interaction between regular use of NSAIDs and other lifestyle and dietary factors on colorectal cancer risk among 11,894 cases and 15,999 controls. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were used for stratified analyses across studies for each risk factor and to summarize the estimates from interactions. Regular use of any NSAID, aspirin, or nonaspirin NSAIDs was significantly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer within almost all subgroups. However, smoking status and BMI were found to modify the NSAID-colorectal cancer association.
Whole exome sequencing study identifies novel rare and common Alzheimer's-Associated variants involved in immune response and transcriptional regulation
The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) undertook whole exome sequencing in 5,740 late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases and 5,096 cognitively normal controls primarily of European ancestry (EA), among whom 218 cases and 177 controls were Caribbean Hispanic (CH). An age-, sex- and APOE based risk score and family history were used to select cases most likely to harbor novel AD risk variants and controls least likely to develop AD by age 85 years. We tested ~1.5 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 50,000 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for association to AD, using multiple models considering individual variants as well as gene-based tests aggregating rare, predicted functional, and loss of function variants.
Pilot randomized trial of a telephone-delivered physical activity and weight management intervention for individuals with lower extremity amputation
Obesity and inactivity are common and burdensome for people with lower extremity amputation (LEA). The extent to which home-based physical activity/weight management programs are effective and safe for people with LEA is unknown. Translating effective interventions for understudied disability groups is needed.
Effect of exercise and/or reduced calorie dietary interventions on breast cancer-related endogenous sex hormones in healthy postmenopausal women
Physical inactivity and being overweight are modifiable lifestyle risk factors that consistently have been associated with a higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in observational studies. One biologic hypothesis underlying this relationship may be via endogenous sex hormone levels. It is unclear if changes in dietary intake, physical activity, or both, are most effective in changing these hormone levels.