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Longitudinal examination of the influence of individual posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and clusters of symptoms on the initiation of cigarette smoking

Journal of Addiction Medicine, Wednesday, June 6, 2018

The aim of this study was to determine whether specific individual posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms or symptom clusters predict cigarette smoking initiation.

Ethnic, geographic, and genetic differences in arsenic metabolism at low arsenic exposure: A preliminary analysis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Researchers investigated the effect of candidate variants in AS3MT (arsenic (III) methyltransferase) with urinary arsenic metabolites and their principal components in a subset of 264 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptom association with subsequent risky and problem drinking initiation

Journal of Addiction Medicine, Monday, June 4, 2018

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and unhealthy alcohol use are commonly associated conditions. It is unknown whether specific symptoms of PTSD are associated with subsequent initiation of unhealthy alcohol use.

Genome-wide meta-analysis of SNP-by9-ACEI/ARB and SNP-by-thiazide diuretic and effect on serum potassium in cohorts of European and African ancestry

The Pharmacogenomics Journal, Friday, June 1, 2018

Researchers evaluated interactions of SNP-by-ACE-I/ARB and SNP-by-TD on serum potassium (K+) among users of antihypertensive treatments (anti-HTN). 

Metabolic syndrome among antiretroviral therapy-naive versus experienced HIV-infected patients without preexisting cardiometabolic disorders in Western Kenya

AIDS Patient Care and STDs, Friday, June 1, 2018

Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular disease risk factors, is increasingly common in people living with HIV; however, data on prevalence and the role of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a risk factor for MetS in sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. 

Donor specific antibody surveillance and graft outcomes in pediatric kidney transplant recipients

Transplantation, Thursday, May 31, 2018

The development of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) has been associated with rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation, and DSA screening is now recommended in all kidney transplant recipients. However, the clinical significance of dnDSA detected by screening patients with a stable creatinine remains unclear.

Integrated delivery of antiretroviral treatment and pre‐exposure prophylaxis to HIV‐1 serodiscordant couples in East Africa: a qualitative evaluation study in Uganda

Journal of the International AIDS Society, Thursday, May 31, 2018

Serodiscordant couples are a priority population for delivery of new HIV prevention interventions in Africa. An integrated strategy of delivering time‐limited, oral pre‐exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to uninfected partners in serodiscordant couples as a bridge to long‐term antiretroviral treatment (ART) for infected partners has been implemented in East Africa, nearly eliminating new infections. Researchers conducted a qualitative evaluation of the integrated strategy in Uganda, to better understand its success.

Early-life air pollution exposure, neighborhood poverty, and childhood asthma in the United States, 1990⁻2014

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Ambient air pollution is a well-known risk factor of various asthma-related outcomes, however, past research has often focused on acute exacerbations rather than asthma development. This study draws on a population-based, multigenerational panel dataset from the United States to assess the association of childhood asthma risk with census block-level, annual-average air pollution exposure measured during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, as well as effect modification by neighborhood poverty. 

Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function

Nature, Tuesday, May 29, 2018

General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. In this study, researchers detected significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. They identified novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.

New thinking about thinking, part two. Theoretical articles for Alzheimer's & Dementia

Alzheimer's & Dementia, Saturday, May 26, 2018

There is one question often asked during scientific meetings, business travel, or dinner parties that is just as easily and equally posed by members of the research community, the general public, or by friends and family: what's new in Alzheimer's research?