School of Public Health

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No association between screening for hepatocellular carcinoma and reduced cancer-related mortality in patients with cirrhosis

Gastroenterology, Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Screening patients with cirrhosis for hepatocellular carcinoma has been recommended. We conducted a matched case-control study within the US Veterans Affairs healthcare system to determine whether screening by abdominal ultrasonography and/or by measuring serum level of alpha fetoprotein is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality in patients with cirrhosis.

Patterns of oral PrEP adherence and HIV risk among Eastern African women in HIV serodiscordant partnerships

AIDS and Behavior, Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Understanding how women use PrEP is important for developing successful implementation programs. The researchers hypothesized there are distinct patterns of adherence, related to HIV risk and other factors. 

Longitudinal increase in blood biomarkers of inflammation or cardiovascular disease and the incidence of venous thromboembolism

Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Saturday, July 14, 2018

Researchers previously showed that participants in the population‐based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort with elevated blood biomarkers of inflammation or cardiac disease were at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, researchers hypothesized that ARIC participants with larger 6‐year increases in three biomarkers – C‐reactive protein (CRP), N‐terminal pro B‐type natriuretic peptide (NT‐proBNP), and troponin T – also would have increased subsequent risk of VTE.

Comparison of SMS self-reported adherence with other adherence measures in a demonstration project of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in Kenya and Uganda

AIDS, Thursday, July 12, 2018

SMS can collect adherence data on a frequent basis and is relatively anonymous, and therefore could potentially reduce recall and social desirability biases prevalent in other self-reported measures. Researchers compared SMS self-reported adherence to three self-reported adherence questions (rating of ability to adhere, frequency of doses taken, percentage of doses taken) and two objective adherence measures (electronic adherence monitoring [EAM] and plasma tenofovir levels) using data from HIV-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples enrolled in a pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration project in Kenya and Uganda.

Exome chip analysis identifies low-frequency and rare variants in MRPL38 for white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging

Stroke, Thursday, July 12, 2018

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain magnetic resonance imaging are typical signs of cerebral small vessel disease and may indicate various preclinical, age-related neurological disorders, such as stroke. Though WMH are highly heritable, known common variants explain a small proportion of the WMH variance. The contribution of low-frequency/rare coding variants to WMH burden has not been explored.

Global surgery: Effective involvement of US academic surgery: Report of the American Surgical Association working group on global surgery

Annals of Surgery, Thursday, July 12, 2018

There is an unacceptably high burden of death and disability from conditions that are treatable by surgery, worldwide and especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The American Surgical Association convened a Working Group to address how US academic surgery can most effectively decrease the burden from surgically treatable conditions in LMICs. 

Temporal trends in the incidence of and mortality associated with heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction

JACC: Heart Failure, Wednesday, July 11, 2018

This study aimed to determine temporal trends in the incidence of and mortality associated with heart failure (HF) and its subtypes (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF] and heart rate with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF]) in the community.

The Association of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits With Incident HFpEF and HFrEF

JACC: Heart Failure, Wednesday, July 11, 2018

The authors evaluated the associations of obesity and cardiometabolic traits with incident heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF vs. HFrEF). Given known sex differences in HF subtype, we examined men and women separately.

Pregnancy outcomes and infant growth among babies with in-utero exposure to tenofovir-based preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention

AIDS, Monday, July 9, 2018

Global guidelines recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy.

Differentiation of Type 1 and Type 2 Myocardial Infarctions among HIV-infected patients requires adjudication due to overlap in risk factors

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Saturday, July 7, 2018

The Universal Myocardial infarction (MI) definition divides MIs into different types. Type 1 MIs (T1MI) result spontaneously from atherosclerotic plaque instability. Type 2 MIs (T2MI) are due to secondary causes of myocardial oxygen demand/supply mismatch such as occurs with sepsis. T2MI are much more common among those with HIV than in the general population. T1MI and T2MI have different mechanisms, risk factors and potential treatments suggesting that they should be distinguished to achieve a better scientific understanding of MIs in HIV. We sought to determine whether MI type could be accurately predicted by patient characteristics without adjudication in HIV-infected individuals.