Germline variation at 8q24 and prostate cancer risk in men of European ancestry
Chromosome 8q24 is a susceptibility locus for multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Here we combine genetic data across the 8q24 susceptibility region from 71,535 prostate cancer cases and 52,935 controls of European ancestry to define the overall contribution of germline variation at 8q24 to prostate cancer risk.
Viral genetics modulate orolabial HSV-1 shedding in humans
Orolabial herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has wide severity spectrum in immunocompetent persons. To study the role of viral genotype and host immunity, we characterized oral HSV-1 shedding rates, host cellular response and genotyped viral strains in mono- (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins.
In-country training by the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons: An initiative that has aided surgeon retention and distribution in Ghana
Prior to 2003, production of new surgeons in Ghana was limited. In 2003, the Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons (GCPS) initiated the first wholly in-country training and credentialing of surgeons. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of in-country training of surgeons in Ghana.
Genome analyses of >200,000 individuals identify 58 loci for chronic inflammation and highlight pathways that link inflammation and complex disorders
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals.
Leptin gene variants and colorectal cancer risk: Sex-specific associations
High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity and CRC risk.
Prevalence and correlates of beta and gamma human papillomavirus detection in oral samples from mid-adult women
Little is known about the epidemiology of β and γ human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in oral cavities of healthy women. Our results suggest a sexual transmission route for β-HPVs, and support the hypothesis that fingers may serve as a source of transmission or autoinoculation of β-HPVs to the oral cavity.
Public perceptions of firearm- and non-firearm-related violent death in the United States: A national study
Version 3 of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set
In 2015, the US Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADC) implemented Version 3 of the Uniform Data Set (UDS). This paper describes the history of Version 3 development and the UDS data that are freely available to researchers.
Developing a representative community health survey sampling frame using open-source remote satellite imagery in Mozambique
Lack of accurate data on the distribution of sub-national populations in low- and middle-income countries impairs planning, monitoring, and evaluation of interventions. Novel, low-cost methods to develop unbiased survey sampling frames at sub-national, sub-provincial, and even sub-district levels are urgently needed. This article details our experience using remote satellite imagery to develop a provincial-level representative community survey sampling frame to evaluate the effects of a 7-year health system intervention in Sofala Province, Mozambique.
Adiposity throughout the life course and risk of venous thromboembolism
Adult body mass index (BMI) is strongly associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE), however whether earlier-life adiposity or other measures of adult adiposity are associated with VTE risk remains largely unknown. We evaluated associations of childhood somatotype, BMI in early adulthood, adult adiposity, and change in weight since early adulthood with incident VTE risk over ≥20 years of follow-up among 205,935 participants from Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHS II) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), ages 29-76 at baseline.