Maternal sedentary behavior during pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy and mean offspring birth size: a cohort study
Sedentary behavior is associated with adverse health outcomes in the general population. Whether sedentary behavior during pregnancy is associated with newborn outcomes, such as birth size, is not established, and previous studies have been inconsistent. While previous research suggests that male and female fetuses respond differently to maternal behaviors, such as physical activity, the role of infant sex in sedentary behavior-birth size associations has not been examined.
Intermediate levels of vaccination coverage may minimize seasonal influenza outbreaks
For most pathogens, vaccination reduces the spread of the infection and total number of cases; thus, public policy usually advocates maximizing vaccination coverage. Researchers used simple mathematical models to explore how this may be different for pathogens, such as influenza, which exhibit strain variation.
Ibero⁻American consensus on low- and no-calorie sweeteners: Safety, nutritional aspects and benefits in food and beverages
International scientific experts in food, nutrition, dietetics, endocrinology, physical activity, paediatrics, nursing, toxicology and public health met in Lisbon on 2⁻4 July 2017 to develop a Consensus on the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) as substitutes for sugars and other caloric sweeteners.
Forecasting the effectiveness of indoor residual spraying for reducing dengue burden
Historically, mosquito control programs successfully helped contain malaria and yellow fever, but recent efforts have been unable to halt the spread of dengue, chikungunya, or Zika, all transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Using a dengue transmission model and results from indoor residual spraying (IRS) field experiments, researchers investigated how IRS-like campaign scenarios could effectively control dengue in an endemic setting.
Testosterone treatment and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men with low testosterone levels
Testosterone treatment of men with low testosterone is common and, although relatively short-term, has raised concern regarding an increased risk of prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the association between modest-duration testosterone treatment and incident aggressive CaP.
Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain
The Brainstorm Consortium examined multiple genome-wide association studies drawn from more than 200,000 patients for 25 brain-associated disorders and 17 phenotypes. Broadly, it appears that psychiatric and neurologic disorders share relatively little common genetic risk. However, different and independent pathways can result in similar clinical manifestations.
A transcriptome-wide association study of 229,000 women identifies new candidate susceptibility genes for breast cancer
The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, researchers performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry.
Novel common genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer
Previous genome-wide association studies have identified 42 loci (P < 5 × 10−8) associated with risk of colorectal cancer. Expanded consortium efforts facilitating the discovery of additional susceptibility loci may capture unexplained familial risk.
Why neighborhood park proximity is not associated with total physical activity
This study explored how parks within the home neighborhood contribute to total physical activity (PA) by isolating park-related PA.
Tenofovir and tenofovir-diphosphate concentrations during pregnancy among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis
Pregnancy is a time of increased HIV acquisition risk and pregnancy reduces concentrations of antiretrovirals used for treatment. Researchers assessed whether pregnancy lowers concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) among HIV-uninfected women using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).