The prevalence and antifolate drug resistance profiles of Plasmodium falciparum in study participants randomized to discontinue or continue cotrimoxazole prophylaxis
Cotrimoxazole prevents opportunistic infections including falciparum malaria in HIV-infected individuals but there are concerns of cross-resistance to other antifolate drugs such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antifolate-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with SP resistance in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment randomized to discontinue (STOP-CTX), or continue (CTX) cotrimoxazole in Western Kenya.
Using targeted mHealth messages to address hypertension and diabetes self-management in cambodia: protocol for a clustered randomized controlled trial
Hypertension and diabetes represent the first and third highest contributors to global disability. While mobile health (mHealth) messaging programs have rapidly increased in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), adaptations for specific patient health needs is a new approach to manage chronic conditions. The primary aim of this study was to develop and test an mHealth communication intervention using electronic data capture (by tablet) and voice messaging to improve hypertension and diabetes self-management in Cambodia.
Effects of infection history on dengue virus infection and pathogenicity
The understanding of immunological interactions among the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and their epidemiological implications is often hampered by the lack of individual-level infection history. Using a statistical framework that infers full infection history, this study analyzes a prospective pediatric cohort in Nicaragua to characterize how infection history modulates the risks of DENV infection and subsequent clinical disease.
Prevalence, predictors, and management of advanced HIV disease among individuals initiating ART in Senegal, West Africa
The WHO guidelines for the management of advanced HIV disease recommend a package of care consisting of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), enhanced screening and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal meningitis, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), fluconazole pre-emptive therapy, and adherence support. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence of advanced HIV disease among individuals initiating ART in Senegal, to identify predictors of advanced disease, and to evaluate adherence to the WHO guidelines.
State-level beer excise tax and firearm homicide in adolescents and young adults
This study sought to determine the association between changes in state-level beer excise tax and firearm homicide rates among individuals aged 15-34 years. Among individuals aged 15-34 years, price-sensitive consumption of beer may represent one feasible tool for policymakers seeking to reduce rates of firearm homicide.
A case-crossover study of heat exposure and injury risk among outdoor construction workers in Washington State
The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between heat exposure and occupational traumatic injuries among construction workers. In order to do so, the authors assessed the relationship between humidex, a measure of apparent temperature, and Washington State Fund workers' compensation injuries among outdoor construction workers using a case-crossover design with time-stratified referent selection.
Training health care providers to provide PrEP for HIV serodiscordant couples attending public health facilities in Kenya
To catalyse national scale up of PrEP for HIV serodiscordant couples in public health facilities in Kenya, the Partners Scale-Up Project, using a two-day case-based interactive curriculum, trained health care providers working in 24 high volume facilities in central and western Kenya on PrEP service delivery. Using a standardised test with questions about PrEP and antiretroviral-based HIV prevention this study assessed gain in knowledge and confidence gain by comparing pre-and post-training test scores.
Recurrent/intermittent vaginal and rectal chlamydial infection fcllowing treatment: a prospective cohort study among female STD clinic patients
Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common among clinic-attending women, but little is known about clearance and health implications of rectal CT. At the municipal STD clinic in Seattle, WA 2017-2018, this study enrolled women at high risk for urogenital CT into an 8-week prospective study.
Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment among older adults in same-sex relationships
Sexual minority discrimination might lead to a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of MCI and dementia between older adults in same-sex relationships (SSR) and opposite-sex relationships (OSR).
Educating obstetrics and gynecology residents on transgender patients: a survey of program directors
The objective of this study was to describe education on transgender health provided by obstetrics and gynecology residency programs and to identify the facilitators and barriers to providing this training. To achieve this, a cross-sectional surve was conducted to evaluate transgender health education in residency among representative sample of 100 of the 236 obstetrics and gynecology residency programs listed in the 2015 Electronic Residency Application Service catalogue.