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Integration of PrEP Services Into Routine Antenatal and Postnatal care: Experiences from an Implementation Program in Western Kenya

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Friday, September 14, 2018

Programmatic approaches for delivering PrEP to pregnant and postpartum women in settings with high HIV burden are undefined. The PrEP Implementation for Young Women and Adolescents (PrIYA) Program developed approaches for delivering PrEP in maternal child health (MCH) clinics.

Meta-analysis across Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium provides evidence for an association of serum vitamin D with pulmonary function

The British Journal of Nutrition, Friday, September 14, 2018

The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA.

A typology of prescription drug monitoring programs: A latent transition analysis of the evolution of programs from 1999 to 2016

Addiction, Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), defined as state-level databases used in the USA that collect prescribing information when controlled substances are dispensed, have varied substantially between states and over time. Little is known about the combinations of PDMP features that, collectively, may produce the greatest impact on prescribing and overdose. The researchers aimed to (1) identify the types of PDMP models that have developed from 1999 to 2016, (2) estimate whether states have transitioned across PDMP models over time, and (3) examine whether states have adopted different types of PDMP models in response to the burden of opioid overdose.

Temporal variability and stability of the fecal microbiome: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, & Prevention, Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Measurement reliability and biological stability need to be considered when developing sampling protocols for population-based fecal microbiome studies.

HIV-exposed uninfected infants: elevated cord blood Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is significantly associated with maternal HIV infection and systemic IL-8 in a Kenyan cohort

Clinical and Translational Medicine, Monday, September 10, 2018

In low and middle income countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants demonstrate higher morbidity and mortality than their unexposed counterparts. To determine possible immune correlates of this effect, the researchers investigated the impact of in utero HIV exposure on the uninfected neonatal immune milieu and maternal factors mediating these abnormalities in a cohort of vaginally delivered mother-infants. Samples of delivery and cord blood plasma were selected from 22 Kenyan HIV-infected women and their HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants drawn from the pre-ARV era, while 19 Kenyan HIV-uninfected (HU) women and their infants were selected from a control cohort.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Genome-wide Interaction Analyses Reveal DPP10-Pulmonary Function Association

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Monday, September 10, 2018

The researchers' objective was to investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility.

Primary Syphilis in the Male Urethra - A Case Report

Clinical Infectious Diseases, Monday, September 10, 2018

A man with nongonococcal urethritis had negative syphilis serology. We documented urethral Treponema pallidum infection using broad-range bacterial polymerase-chain-reaction and sequencing, targeted polymerase-chain-reaction, and immunofluorescence microscopy. The patient subsequently seroconverted for syphilis; symptoms resolved with penicillin. Early syphilis may present as urethritis. Urethral T. pallidum shedding can occur before seroconversion.

Novel public-private partnerships to address the double burden of malnutrition

Nutrition Reviews, Friday, September 7, 2018

Public-private partnerships are an effective way to address the global double burden of malnutrition. While public-private partnerships operate in multiple forms, their leadership usually falls to governments, public health agencies, or nongovernmental organizations, with the private sector taking a subordinate role. The rapid ascent of social media and mass communications worldwide has provided a disruptive technology for new nutrition intervention programs. A new model, provisionally called private-public engagement, takes advantage of social media, mass media, and integrated social marketing to reach parents, families, and communities directly. These new private-public engagement initiatives need to be managed in ways suggested for public-private partnerships by the World Health Organization, especially if the private sector is in the lead.

Hospitalization and mortality among pediatric cancer survivors: a population-based study

Cancer Causes & Control, Wednesday, September 5, 2018

The researchers examined serious long-term outcomes among childhood cancer survivors using population-based data.

Addition of a polygenic risk score, mammographic density, and endogenous hormones to existing breast cancer risk prediction models: A nested case-control study

PLoS Medicine, Tuesday, September 4, 2018

No prior study to the researchers' knowledge has examined the joint contribution of a polygenic risk score (PRS), mammographic density (MD), and postmenopausal endogenous hormone levels-all well-confirmed risk factors for invasive breast cancer-to existing breast cancer risk prediction models.